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  • Locate, download, and read one full-text, qualitative, scholarly article at least 10 pages in length that would be beneficial for a research study on the Virtuous Business Model.
  1. Use the qualitative scholarly article to address the following prompts:
    1. Write a critical review on the selected article using concepts introduced throughout the textbook.
    2. Access and use the hyperlinked resources to inform the scholarly process and writing of the review.
    3. The completed article critique should be at least two full pages and no more than three full pages in length, single spaced, with a few headings as appropriate.
      1. The use of two columns with inclusion of headings is optional to the typical page layout.
    4. Doctoral quality, reasonably sized tables, charts, bulleted lists or figures may be included (of limited quantity to not overshadow the narrative critic are optional as well.)

need APA references and minimum 2 pages with content mentioned in all points

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What Sparks Ethical Decision Making? The Interplay Between Moral Intuition

and Moral Reasoning: Lessons from the Scholastic Doctrine

Article  in  Journal of Business Ethics · November 2017

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-016-3221-8




3 authors:

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Lamberto Zollo

University of Milan



Massimiliano Matteo Pellegrini

University of Rome Tor Vergata



Cristiano Ciappei

University of Florence



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What Sparks Ethical Decision Making? The Interplay Between
Moral Intuition and Moral Reasoning: Lessons
from the Scholastic Doctrine

Lamberto Zollo1 • Massimiliano Matteo Pellegrini2 • Cristiano Ciappei1

Received: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 May 2016
! Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Abstract Recent theories on cognitive science have
stressed the significance of moral intuition as a counter to

and complementary part of moral reasoning in decision

making. Thus, the aim of this paper is to create an inte-
grated framework that can account for both intuitive and

reflective cognitive processes, in order to explore the

antecedents of ethical decision making. To do that, we
build on Scholasticism, an important medieval school of

thought from which descends the main pillars of the

modern Catholic social doctrine. Particularly, the focus
will be on the scholastic concept of synderesis, which is an

innate human faculty that constantly inclines decision

makers toward universal moral principles. Managerial
implications are discussed, stressing how a rediscovery of

decision makers’ intuitive moral judgments could be rele-

vant in the reflective thinking practice of managers’ ethical
reasoning, thus saving them from rational insensitivity to

ethical dilemmas.

Keywords Ethical decision making ! Dual processing
theory ! Intuition ! Emotion ! Cognition ! Synderesis


Following recent corporate scandals in the global economic

scenario, research on ethical behavior has increasingly
developed within the general area of business. In particular,

ethical decision making has progressively gained relevance

in the management literature (Tenbrunsel and Smith-
Crowe 2008). A comprehensive body of research has been

produced, either with a theoretical or an empirical

approach (for an extensive review of this subject see, for
example, Craft 2013; Ford and Richardson 1994; O’Fallon

and Butterfield 2005). A primary and central element of all

this body of literature mainly remains a rationalist and
cognitive approach, among which Rest’s model of ethical

decision making (1986) is one of the most cited specific

frameworks. Building upon this, a variety of theoretically
positive and descriptive models of ethical decision making

have been proposed, all pointing to a predominance of

rational processes (e.g., Ferrell and Gresham 1985; Hunt
and Vitell 1986; Jones 1991; Treviño 1986). In such

models, intuition and emotions are set apart or completely
disregarded, and for this reason the rationalist approach

seems to encounter limitations and shortfalls, especially in

uncertain, unexpected, and dynamic contexts (Groves et al.
2008; Pellegrini and Ciappei 2015; Treviño et al. 2006). In

such circumstances, decision makers rely heavily on their

‘gut feelings,’ emotions, and intuitive mental processes
(Gaudine and Thorne 2001; Zhong 2011). For this reason,

social psychologists and business scholars have recently

rediscovered the importance of the emotive, instinctive,
and intuitive reactions of decision makers (Dane and Pratt

2007; Haidt 2001), a claim that is traditionally supported

by intuition-based models of human cognition (e.g., Evans
2008; Kahneman 2003; Stanovich and West 2000). Thus, it

seems reasonable to say that these intuitive and emotional

& Lamberto Zollo

Massimiliano Matteo Pellegrini

Cristiano Ciappei

1 Department of Sciences for Economics and Business,
University of Florence, Via delle Pandette, 9,
50127 Florence, Italy

2 Claude Littner Business School, University of West London,
Boston Manor Road, Brentford, London TW8 9GA, UK


J Bus Ethics

DOI 10.1007/s10551-016-3221-8

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  • What Sparks Ethical Decision Making? The Interplay Between Moral Intuition and Moral Reasoning: Lessons from the Scholastic Doctrine
    • Abstract
    • Introduction

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