Unit V Discussion Board Some people believe that poor writing in a peer-reviewed paper is a reflection on the writer. Others believe it is a reflection on

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Unit V Discussion Board Some people believe that poor writing in a peer-reviewed paper is a reflection on the writer. Others believe it is a reflection on the journal and its editors. What are your thoughts? Why? 

Book reference: Greene, S., & Lidinsky, A. (2018). From inquiry to academic writing: A practical guide (4th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin’s. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781319071677 RCH 7302, Doctoral Writing and Inquiry Into Research 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

5. Develop research questions based on issues identified in academic literature.
5.1 Write an introduction based on academic literature that appeals to readers.

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity


Unit Lesson
Chapter 9, pp. 247–272
Chapter 11, pp. 314–340
Unit V Scholarly Activity

Required Unit Resources

Chapter 9: From Ethos to Logos: Appealing to Your Readers, pp. 247–272

Chapter 11: From Introductions to Conclusions: Drafting an Essay, pp. 314–340

Unit Lesson

The textbook indicates that to appeal to the ethos, three strategies are necessary that result in an overall
understanding of the issues and convey credibility to readers (Greene & Lidinsky, 2018, p. 255). The authors,
as is evident from this unit’s reading, suggest this is the first step, or requirement, in using logos—evidence to
support a claim regarding an issue or argument (p. 263). Rivas (2018) refers to this when supporting
arguments or claims. Of course, writers need to avoid fallacies in their argumentation in support of a premise
or issue, as also outlined in the same chapter in the textbook. But there is more to style than just presentation
of a valid argument or contention in support of a thesis. In academic writing, there are writing conventions and
formats (e.g., APA, MLA), that are required by various journals, programs, and universities. When speaking of
style at the doctoral level, there are some considerations in a style that are different than a conversation with
friends or an essay on a topic at a different academic level.

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA Manual), 6th edition (APA, 2009)
outlines some general areas to be cognizant of when the goal is clear communication where the purpose is to
engage readers and present ideas effectively (p. 65). These concerns include continuity in supporting ideas
and being careful of pronoun use and punctuation so as not to interfere with meaning. Avoid devices used in
creative writing that do not contribute to a succinct and clear expression of ideas, and avoid abrupt or unclear
meanings from noun strings or mixed verb tenses (p. 66). The manual outlines strategies for the economy of
expression, precision, clarity, and tone, among others. Similar topics are covered in the 7th edition of the APA
Manual in Chapter 4 and probably should be considered required reading for any doctoral student along with
the formatting materials covered in the manual (APA, 2020).

The writer’s style in writing does not have to be completely ignored (Rivas, 2018, p. 540). Consider what
Rivas has indicated. A great way to approach writing is in terms of what the appeals are. What is going to be
said in the introduction, the body, the conclusion? How are the arguments, or contentions, going to be
framed? If a case is being established for the research that is establishing a premise for the need or benefit of
this research, how is that going to be marketed rhetorically so that the concept can be accepted by others?
Santos and Santos (2015) conclude that the journal articles (the results of research) are accepted that are
easy to read and edit rather than those that are written in a poor style with lengthy and wordy sentences.


Appealing to Readers

RCH 7302, Doctoral Writing and Inquiry Into Research 2



Academic writing does not have to be stilted, uninteresting, or misunderstood; the author’s writing style can
encourage others to both read and understand what is being presented (Shtulman, 2018).

Reading the work of others in journal articles and other publications can help enhance one’s writing style. This
is particularly true in academic work where the genre is different than an essay, although the appeals may be
similar at times, as noted in the textbook, and often, new writers experience challenges in research and
writing (Dubicki, 2015; Greene & Lidinsky, 2018). Consider the challenges of writing an abstract where every
single word must count and contribute significant meaning, thus drawing attention to the research. Thinking of
the result can often benefit the process of writing the larger paper (Gambescia, 2013).

Communication of all kinds can be impacted by noise, usually discussed as barriers to communication that
come from the environment, but some of these issues also appear regularly in written communication where
these issues would not be expected (Ifeduba, 2020). Selective perception, semantics, filtering, credibility, and
culture, among other things, are common barriers in written communication where the messages being sent
are not necessarily the messages being received (Dobra & Popescu, 2008). Different communication theories
explain this communication process and what might interrupt it, including the Shannon Weaver
communication model, the Berlo model, the Barnlund model, and the Schramm model among others (Julien,

Being cognizant of these challenges in communication can inform the writer on the style choices and
constructions that should be considered when communicating with a particular audience(s) in writing research
papers. Rivas (2018) even suggests to adopt a style for writing that meets the needs of a particular segment,
or group (p. 540). As a researcher with knowledge in a specific domain and a specific degree program, these
may vary significantly from what other researchers/writers are doing. What is the language or vocabulary of a
domain of interest that a researcher is pursuing? Now, how can an individual writer incorporate their
academic style with the needs of the readers in their domain to ensure maximum communication?

Now the task of writing proceeds as outlined by the textbook authors in Chapter 11. Choosing strategies that
the authors outline is a choice in style and communication. Even the transition words and phrases must be
chosen for their purpose and meaning (Greene & Lidinsky, 2018). Returning to the marketing of ideas
suggested by Rivas (2018), what writing conventions will best serve the style and purposes of the writer is a
conscious and deliberate decision. The same is true for the conclusion and strategies chosen to complete the
conclusion as these must meet the needs of the writer and the audience of readers. The vocabulary, style of
writing, and strategies selected to meet the writing goals will vary with the anticipated method of research in
addition to the domain area and subject areas of research. This will reflect on the credibility of the writer as
knowledgeable in this chosen area of research, and thus the written material will be more readily accepted by
readers. Aligning the appeals and argumentation to the research methodology with clear and engaging writing
will readily impact the acceptability of what is presented. Thus, style of writing can influence the acceptability
of the research, and this adds to Greene and Lidinsky’s discussion of appeals and the drafting of writing from
an introduction to a conclusion that serves to communicate the message(s) of the writer to more accepting


American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association

(6th ed.).

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association

(7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Dobra, A., & Popescu, A.-V. (2008). Barriers in verbal communication. Scientific Bulletin of the Politehnica

University of Timisoara. Transactions on Modern Languages, 7(1/2), 15–20.

Dubicki, E. (2015). Writing a research paper: Students explain their process. Reference Services Review,

43(4), 673–688. https://doi.org/10.1108/rsr-07-2015-0036

RCH 7302, Doctoral Writing and Inquiry Into Research 3



Gambescia, S. F. (2013). A brief on writing a successful abstract. Education for Health: Change in Learning &
Practice, 26(2), 122–125. https://doi.org/10.4103/1357-6283.120706

Greene, S., & Lidinsky, A. (2018). From inquiry to academic writing: A practical guide (4th ed.). Bedford/St.

Martin’s. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781319071677

Ifeduba, E. C. (2020). How communication noise erodes quality and undermines learning. Quality Assurance

in Education, 28(3), 165–177. https://doi.org/10.1108/QAE-07-2019-0068

Julien, A. (2020). Models of communication. Salem Press.


Rivas, C. (2018). Writing a research report. In C. Seale (Ed.), Researching society and culture (4th ed., pp.

535–554). SAGE.

Santos, J. A. C., & Santos, M. C. (2015). Strategies for writing a research paper. Tourism & Management

Studies, 11(1), 7–13.

Shtulman, A. (2018). Communicating developmental science to nonscientists, or how to write something even

your family will want to read. Journal of Cognition and Development, 19(5), 477–485.

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V
Required Unit Resources
Unit Lesson

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