Response 8 See attached. Module #8 Responses Needed SSC-327 (M.N.) On my dad’s side everyone is from Congo, Africa and my mom side is from England and A

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Response 8 See attached. Module #8 Responses Needed



On my dad’s side everyone is from Congo, Africa and my mom side is from England and America. Starting with my dad he was born and raised In Congo and the same for his parents, grandparents, and great grandparents. He came to the United States in his 20s and married my mom. My mom’s father is from England and came her when he was a young adult as well. Both his parents, grandparents and great grandparents are from England. My mom’s mother is from America and her parents and grandparents are as well. There are certain parts of my dad’s culture that we implement into our family. We have a lot of African art in our house and eat a lot of the same dishes he had growing up. American culture can definitely have an impact on one’s heritage culture. My dad has assimilated a lot since being in the United States and my mom never brought her father culture or traditions into our lives. It can be hard for people to come to the United States and keep their traditions especially when they don’t have many others around them coming from similar cultures.



My family’s migration story starts in Sicily on my father’s side. The year was 1969, my father was 10 years old, my aunt 7-years-old. My grandfather and grandmother (Nonno and Nonna in Sicilian culture) decided they had enough of the ever-expanding poverty spreading like a wildfire across Sicily. Until 1959, farming, fishing, and handicrafts were the primary sources of livelihood for rural Sicilians. About 10 years later my mother’s family would also leave Sicily for America and a brighter future fir their family. In the production of material and cultural commodities, everyone or nearly everyone has a hand in the process. All of them, even the kids, worked nonstop from sunrise to sunset. There was a sizable portion of the population who had little or no formal education. Men and women of all ages worked together to create wealth. One thing everyone could improve on was their artistic ability. even in the role of housewife, women not only took care of children and the home, but also baked bread, made macaroni, preserved fruit and vegetables for a year’s worth of jams, and made family clothing and a traditional wedding trousseau. for their daughters’ weddings. They were more than just housewives. Even though their contributions to the household economy were not formally recognized, women played an essential part in it. (Lorenzo, 2001) The township produced all the farming and fishing equipment and technical methods required by the residents. The horses, mules, and donkeys that worked the land, transported people, and harvested crops were all bred and raised locally. Grass, straw, hay, oats, wheat, broad beans, grain, and other locally produced foods were fed to the animals. There were several blacksmith shops in the municipality that specialized in making hoes, carts, and saddles. Scythes, knives, bill hooks, pruning shears, and other locally sourced tools are also available. Tailors and seamstresses in the area prepared clothing for special events, as well as shoemakers. The town’s carpenters and lock smiths made all of the homes’ furniture and wooden fixtures. The municipality also produced barrels, enormous vats for crushing grapes, tuna fish nets, etc. In addition to water mills, olive presses, huge jars, and metal or ceramic cookware, water mills were also used for milling grain and pressing olive oil. (Lorenzo, 2001) Apart from going to church on a weekly basis for mass most of the Sicilian culture that both my father’s and mother’s family carried over from the motherland to America has very much stuck. We have Sunday afternoon family dinner, the feast of the fishes on Christmas Eve, etc. My parents still speak to me in Italian when we are at home. This is being carried over to my daughter, as well as my nephew and niece, through being entrenched in this language it becomes second nature. In terms of American culture shaping the Italian culture that my family came to America with, not much has changed according to my parents when I asked them in preparation for writing this post. The one major change has been the importance of religion in our lives. In particular; Roman Catholicism. I was one of the first to begin to question my faith as a teenager and this change in culture has since spread to my younger cousins and even older family members. Church as a weekly ritual has all but gone away for my family. Some may consider this change very profound, however, the younger generation of this family has taken to the American way of questioning religion, questioning the bible and its teachings. The importance of regularly practicing in our Faith was lost somewhere from Sicily to the Northeast of America where my family settled.



During this course I have learned a lot of valuable information about other cultures and the importance of preserving cultures and traditions. In a world that is constantly evolving it can be challenging to keepsake certain traditions. With people migrating to different countries, assimilation often occurs especially if they are in communities with not a lot of people who share the same culture. What I’ve learned in the course can be helpful in my future career in the medical field as it is important to know about patient’s culture since that can impact their treatment and their health.



Evolutionary ecology views the world through the lens of push models. For the hunter-gatherer, efficiency is key to acquiring enough food to consume. Subsistence resources (such as seeds) are only added to the list when higher-ranking foods are no longer available. Hunter-gatherers are assumed to live in a world of few resources and severe conditions, according to these push perspectives. A key and enlightening insight in recent years has been that agricultural origins occur in relatively rich environments, rather than in areas where food is scarce. Experiments leading to the origins of agriculture were conducted in these kinds of conditions, where risk was low and resources were plentiful. Optimal foraging models may not be as effective as previously thought in these kinds of environments, as higher-ranked food sources appear to have remained available. (Price & Bar-Yosef, 2011) Agriculture transition studies have both practical and theoretical implications. The precise date and location of farming’s inception is a striking statement about the event’s worldwide scope. Anthropological insights on human behavior and cultural change can be applied to the study of the transition from hunting and gathering to farming. We are all affected by the fast population expansion and aggregation and social inequality that occurred as a result of the switch to agriculture. To what extent is it a mistake in the history of humanity, or is it a necessary step in human evolution? The origins and spread of agriculture have undergone a series of changes in recent years. More radiocarbon dates and new methodologies have helped researchers establish earlier agricultural shifts in portions of Asia, the South Pacific, and the United States. Remains, particularly starch grains and phytoliths, have revolutionized the identification of plant exploitation prior to the development of farming as well as the advent of domesticated crops. In the genetics of domestication, the use of ancient DNA to analyze the links among prehistoric domestics is beginning to answer long-standing issues regarding where and when domestication took place. It’s time to put all this new material together, sort through it, and synthesize our present understanding of agriculture’s origins and development. (Price & Bar-Yosef, 2011) Separating the origins of agriculture from domestication and separating biology from culture in the move from hunting to farming is essential. For plants and animals, the criteria for determining domestication are vastly different. Plants go through unique morphological changes rather quickly, but animals take a lot longer to go through these changes. Archaeozoology has made significant contributions to our understanding of the process. There are three types of domesticated animals: commensals (such as dogs, cats, guinea pigs), prey animals (such as cows, sheep, and pigs), and target animals (such as horses and donkeys) (e.g., horse, camel, donkey). Animals’ domestication-related changes may be more species-specific. As a result of these variations, nonmorphological criteria, such as shifts in herd age profiles, may be necessary for fauna to be considered. (Price & Bar-Yosef, 2011) This class has easily been THE most interesting class I have taken at Saint Leo yet. I was so motivated and attracted to the topic of Cultural Anthropology as a whole that I actually read the Miller text well before the 3rd module started. As a single father it is sometimes difficult to find things to get me out of the dad mindset and into intellectual mode. This class has refreshed my desire to learn and will without a doubt carry over into my last year of classes at Saint Leo (2022). In today’s society, conducting anthropological study can be difficult, but it can also be extremely gratifying. It is possible to use applied anthropology to help solve modern societal problems. Holism, comparability, relativism, and a focus on specific examples are the tools of applied anthropologists. People around the world face the problem of defining citizenship in a complicated, diverse, and tough environment at the beginning of the twenty-first century. As students approach the end of their studies, they might begin to think about how their anthropology knowledge can be applied to their own roles and how they might be more effective as global citizens. Anthropology isn’t just a sleight-of-hand sleight of hand. Even if students don’t pursue careers in anthropology, they can use what they’ve learned as a springboard for a life of self-reflection, participation, and growth. (Schultz, Lavenda and Dods, 2018) Anthropologists who are interested in expanding our understanding of human rights have recently gotten involved in human rights groups. Furthermore, they helped human rights supporters recognize that the rights of groups (such as Indigenous peoples) require as much attention as the individual rights of those groups. In the study of cultural anthropology, we encounter a variety of ways of existence and are challenged to recognize just how arbitrary our own view of the world is. To further our understanding of colonialism’s legacy, anthropology helps us recognize our own role in the past and present-day colonial and postcolonial environments. Even in the modern world, the effects of colonialism still resound, and we can see how much the Western tradition has to bear. (Schultz, Lavenda and Dods, 2018) Our survival as a species and our individual viability rests on the ability to perceive and act on alternatives in the different situations we meet in our lives. Many applied anthropologists today advocate for indigenous peoples in a postcolonial environment, just as many anthropologists worked in the service of colonial administrations in the 19th and 20th centuries to help manage the affairs of colonial subjects. Biological anthropologists play a critical role in the identification and recovery of human remains following conflict and genocide in both contemporary and historical contexts. While nationalism and anti-refugee sentiments are on the rise, applied anthropologists can play a role in the preservation of democracy. They are uniquely qualified to offer advice on multiculturalism and immigration integration. First Nations governments, corporations, and applied anthropologists in Canada have worked together to support or oppose large-scale resource development projects. (Schultz, Lavenda and Dods, 2018)



For my capstone research project, I researched the efficacy and ability of medical marijuana to treat people suffering from mental health disorders. The issue also included the history of marijuana in the U.S., impacts of criminalization, therapeutic benefits, political aspects, and the science behind it as a medicine. I chose this topic because I have always been interested in the psychology behind mental illness. In my liberal arts academic endeavors, I have taken many psychology courses, literature courses, religion, and even art that seem to be influenced by mental illness in some sort or another. There is a stigma behind mental illness and also marijuana and those who consume it. This element made piqued my curiosity and made it very interesting.

I approached the use of medical marijuana for mental health-related concerns very open-mindedly. I live in one of the 33 states which allow medical marijuana to be used as medication, and I am very empathetic for those whose lives have been touched by a mental health disorder. In researching my subject, I used many different scholarly sources. I predominantly relied upon peer-reviewed journals relating to medical marijuana. I also used references from the federal Drug Administration, University of California Davis, and The American Psychiatric Association. I found a 1930’s era propaganda film called Reefer Madness which I viewed as was able to use to understand some of the basis for the prejudices towards marijuana and users.

After my research, I concluded that medical marijuana should be widely accepted as a treatment modality for mental health disorders. Medical marijuana has been shown to have less risk and fewer side effects than other psychotropic medications used to treat mental health disorders. I also learned that when the federal government prohibited marijuana in the early 20th century, it disproportionately targeted people of color and minorities. The politics behind medical marijuana are controlled tightly at the federal level of government. Big pharmaceutical companies with pecuniary interests in ensuring they have no competition from medical marijuana spend vast amounts of money lobbying in Washington, D.C.

Overall, this project did turn out in the manner that I had expected it would. I was surprised to learn the layers and multiple disciplines that this topic would cover as it broaches the issues of science, medicine, ethics, politics, history, culture, and psychology. The most shocking thing I learned was that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is more a political branch of government than I had previously thought it to be. The same FDA that approved Purdue Pharmaceuticals dangerous Oxycontin balks at approving medical marijuana, despite being proven to be less dangerous.



Here is my summary of my research paper. It’s about religion and medicine.

1. Religion is older than modern medicine and deserves RESPECT.

2. I have been studying nutrition and alternative medicine since I was 16. I was enrolled in a Natural Health school and learned how to find out if a specific supplement or food is good for me.

3. I took 4 classes so far in Natural Health at the college level. I am going to use my own knowledge, plus look for other natural remedies.

4. I studied lectures every week for about 2 months, this autumn and should have about 91% this semester, in my class overall. I had about 98% in my other Natural Health class.

5. My findings are that Muscle Response Testing (MRT) is effective in finding out what foods and supplements are good for you. You can test them on your own or you can have someone muscle test you. You hold a food or supplement and the Natural Health Practitioner asks you to hold your arm up strong. If the supplement or food is good for you, your arm will stay strong. If it’s bad for you, your arm will drop down.

6. The project is turning out well. I went to the University of Michigan and took a class there called “Herbs and Supplements.” The title of the class seemed helpful to find out what natural remedies were available for what symptoms. It was 4 months long of the professors basically saying, “Vitamins are controversial. Take your prescriptions from your doctor instead.” I was disappointed and a doctor was in my classes, who wanted to know what natural remedies he could recommend to his patients and didn’t really get to learn that much about them. Since then, I have enrolled in 2 Natural Health schools and taken 3 classes. I am going to finish my bachelor’s degree first. I think if you work at something GOOD long enough and hard enough, you should get a GOOD result.

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