philosophy 1010 Reply to at least two other student discussion postings in at least 100 words. What did you learn from the other student’s post? What

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philosophy 1010 Reply to at least two other student discussion postings in at least 100 words.

What did you learn from the other student’s post?
What can you add to their discussion post? Classmate 1……

Three prominent philosophers Confucius, Plato, and Aristotle sought to answer the question of how society should be organized and governed. Rather than accepting the social and political structures of their era. Each of them had a unique and significant differences of the ideal society, they had similar in regards to core ideas. These core ideas included virtue, justice and the common good emerge.

Confucius aimed his theory that society should be based on virtue and social order. “His ambitious hope was to reshape and restructure Chinese society based on philosophy enlightened values” (Chaffee, 2016, page 533). His ideas were in response to the political turmoil that dictated the social conditions of his time, that was dominated by confusion. Confucius believed that the answer to this was to establish a social order based on the quality of being kind, empathy and feeling for others. It’s based on principle of ren, a person who exemplifies this virtue of what a human should be and it reciprocated or encourages other to strive towards it. He also believed that following Li was needed to achieve our full humanity. It is the principle of rites, etiquette, good manners or standards of behaviors that guides human action. By following these virtues results in a society that was led by example, order by force or punishment were not necessary.

Plato’s social theory was based on the concept of justice and his vision is documented in his work The Republic. He rejected the idea of a just society because he thought people were too easily influenced by appeals of unreasonable emotions and illogical arguments. After witnessing firsthand, the killing of his mentor Socrates, he decided the ideal society should be governed by a limited number of people. These individuals should be equally qualified based on their intelligence, society should be led by the most intelligent and wisest people. Plato divided people into three categories: workers, guardians, and Philosopher-kings.  He said that each person had a unique ability or talent and should use it in the appropriate manner. Therefore, justice occurs when the three work together to perform a smooth and balanced whole. Plato’s theory cautioned people from moving outside their social class, because it was unjust and would threaten societies happiness. The intelligent have earned the right and are best equipped to rule. In his theory the ideal society is one that works on cooperation and working together in the interest of society as a whole.

Aristotle’s view on society is that humans are social, political creature by nature. “Our self-identity is at its core a social identity, shaped by the network of people who form our social community, within which we are embedded” (Chaffee, 2016, page 540). Aristotle concludes that our thinking and language abilities allow us to reflect and evaluate complex situations. He thought we achieved our full potential by our social existence. That by working with other we could achieve virtue for not only ourselves but the community. He unlike Plato thought wealth and goods should be fair among society and that the disadvantaged should have protection in a just society.

Word Count: 516

References:

Chaffee, J. (2016). The Philosopher’s Way: A text with readings, thinking critically about profound ideas (5th ed.). Pearson.

Classmate2………..

Rawls considered equality to be the moral benchmark for all social and political institutions, and felt that any deviation from equality must be specially justified. Nozick, on the other hand, considered liberty to be the more important value. He pointed out that there is an inevitable tension between liberty and equality: to maintain equal distribution in society, a central planner would have to constantly interfere with people’s personal choices. 

Rawls came up with two principles that he thought most people would agree with in this hypothetical. Firstly, the Liberty Principle stated that each person has a right to the greatest equal liberty possible. Secondly the Difference Principle stated that social and economic differences in society could only be justified if they benefited the worst off. Whenever you changed society you had to make sure that things would improve for the people on the bottom of the heap. So the rich could get richer only if the poor were not left behind.

Rawls’ theory was a form of liberalism which provided the foundation for many types of government. Chief among these was the welfare state, in which wealth was redistributed so that the least fortunate would be looked after. Philosophy had provided something a tad more useful than language games or debates about whether the chair really exists. Rawls’ theory of justice began to underpin policy and politics.

Nozick claimed that any government which forcibly taxed rich people and redistributed their wealth to help poor people was violating the liberty of the rich. Governments, he argued, had no right to encroach on the rights of individuals by taking their money and giving it to others. Governments shouldn’t act like Robin hood, robbing the rich to give to the poor.

This was especially the case if people’s wealth had arisen through talent or hard work. Nozick held strongly to the rights of the individual, and advocated a minimal state which maintained law and order but did nothing to redistribute wealth.

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