Peer Repsonse 5 peers response (300 words / per response)
Professor expectations for peer reviews – I encourage you, if referencing articles – share
demographics, methods, and results + use data from the article to support your statements. If
sharing personal anecdotes or experiences – provide context and detailed applications = should
share the experience, what you learned, and what you’ve applied. And please encourage your
peers. You can point out different view with them. Final thing you need to response your
peers, and share your experience and data.
Ice hockey is an incredibly interesting sport, not only due to its speed and physicality, but also
because it is one of a few sports played on ice. A typical player typically performs 15-20 minutes
worth of work in increments of 30-80 second shifts with 4 to 5 minutes rest before the next
shift. This all occurs within three 20-minute periods. Ice hockey primarily uses anaerobic (69%
anaerobic metabolism) metabolic pathways; however, a strong aerobic system (31% oxidative
phosphorylation) is necessary to support metabolite clearance and gas exchange (Montgomery,
Ice hockey is uniquely played on a hockey skate and the hockey stride is similar to running gait
with subtle, but important, differences. The ice-skating stride consists of 3 phases: glide during
single support, propulsion during single support, and propulsion during double support.
Propulsion initiates approximately at the halfway point of the single support phase. This lasts
until the end of the double support phase, where the extended leg is returned back underneath
the skater. When the knee and hip are extending, a great amount of force is produced by the
quadriceps, gluteal group, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius. Additionally, the adductor muscle
groups are placed under great stress as they act as antagonists to the hockey stride,
eccentrically lengthening with each push off to stabilize the hip (Marino, 1977).
The typical elite level hockey player varies slightly by position. The average NHL forward is 73
cm and 91.8 kilograms while the typical NHL defensemen is 74 cm tall and 95.5 kilograms. The
average NHL goalie is 74 cm tall and weighs about 90 kilograms. Choosing a test to represent
overall physical fitness for a hockey player is difficult because there is a demanding anaerobic
metabolic component to intense shifts, however speed and power are also vital to producing
plays that lead to goals (Burr et al., 2008).
The typical hockey player goes through a battery of tests during every training camp; however,
the standing long jump may be the test that most easily paints a picture of potential success.
The standing long jump is a simple test to administer in the field, requiring just a tape measure.
The test is a simple test of maximal lower body power, vital for the game of hockey. Subjects
simply line up at the starting line, perform a countermovement and attempt to propel
themselves as far forward as they can, landing on two feet. Power in the horizontal plane is
tested, rather than the vertical plane with a vertical jump. This makes the test more sport
specific as hockey is primarily played in the sagittal plane (Burr et al., 2008).
Burr, J. F., Jamnik, R. K., Baker, J., Macpherson, A., Gledhill, N., & McGuire, E. J. (2008).
Relationship of physical fitness test results and hockey playing potential in elite-level ice hockey
players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(5), 1535–1543.
Marino, G. W. (1977). Kinematics of ice skating at different velocities. Research Quarterly.
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 48(1), 93-97.
Montgomery, D. L. (1988). Physiology of ice hockey. Sports Medicine, 5(2), 99–126.
Soccer is a sport that involves lower-body dominance; mainly the hips, knees, ankles, quads,
glutes, hamstrings, and calves are utilized in the game. Soccer uses both the aerobic and
anerobic energy systems, with many changes of directions and defensive movements. The
average work rate is measured by variables like heart rate. Elite competitions can be very
intense. 80-90% of maximum heart rate may be used, with approximately 70% of maximal
oxygen uptake (Bangsbo, 1994). During matches, the anaerobic energy system may be heavily
used (Bangsbo, 1994), soccer games last for a total of 90 minutes that are equally halved into
45 minutes each with a 15-minute half-time. Soccer is a sport with intermittent movement, and
it requires physical fitness as well as a sharp mind. Extraversion is team sports can be seen
among athletes in soccer (Olmeida et al., 2019), so being a team player is important. Soccer
players must mentally be prepared and have good psychological skills (Olmeida et al., 2019).
Knowledge of strategizing and having an ability to focus is a key characteristic. The prediction of
the goal is one of the focus points of a soccer player (Olmeida et al., 2019). Trapping, dribbling,
passing, shooting, and kicking the ball causes soccer players to have great speed, ability,
coordination, and powerful legs. An ideal assessment to monitor the progression of athletes is
the expected contribution to the outcomes of a match rating (ECOM). The assessment analyzes
moves that lead to goals and provides a score for each individual athlete involved (Bravo et al.,
2021). Plots are created by Instant Data, which provide 4 points of progression: attacking, the.
18-yard box, the goal zone, and whether a shot/goal took place (Bravo et al., 2021). This
assessment is a great way to track and monitor plays and moves. Improvements of progression
are predictable in the future through GPS and radio waves (Bravo et al., 2021). The ECOM rating
outperformed past metrics such as historical distributions and pass accuracy in contributions of
match outcomes (Bravo et al., 2021). The data is very comprehensive and includes ways to
examine and predict plays and moves that result in more opportunities to score. Player
performance is examined and not wins (Bravo et al., 2021). The assessment Is an important tool
because all actions of possession can be retrieved after a match. The player’s actions and
destinations of the actions, the name of the player and the name of the opponent, and models
of expected probability can be analyzed (Bravo et al., 2021).
Bravo, A., Karba, T., Mcwhirter, S. & Nayden, B. (2021). Analysis of individual player
performances and their effect on winning in college soccer. SMU Data Review, 5, 1-24
Olmeida, A., Ruiz-Barquin, R., Ponseti, F., Robles-Palazon, F. & Garcia-Mas, A. (2019).
Competitive psychological disposition and perception of performance in young female
soccer players. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-9
Bangsbo, J. (1994). Energy demands in competitive soccer. Journal of Sports Science, 12, 5-12
Several characteristics that make up a prototypical soccer athlete include stamina, endurance
with high maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), decision-making, the ability to change
directions quickly, and have optimal flexibility and strength in the lower extremity.
The athlete must be able to run all over the pitch for up to ninety minutes, sometimes more
than that, up to an average of 12 kilometers per match (Hoff, 2005, Anderson et al., 2016). They
must be able to perform at high intensity at speeds of 14.4 km/h (25% of the time) and 19.8
km/h (88% of the time) (Di Salvo et al., 2007; Bangsbo et al., 2006). Although soccer players
perform at a low intensity of about 70% of the time (Bangsbo et al., 2006), high intensity
running is performed every 72 seconds (Bradley et al., 2009). According to the heart rate and
lactate threshold measurements collected, the average intensity of about 70% was measured in
the game (Bangsbo et al., 2006).
Without factoring intensity, players still have to make a wide range of movements and
constantly change different directions to play the game (Sarati et al., 2020; Small et al., 2010).
The soccer match consists of several intervals with changes in low and high intensity measures,
so the type of training for soccer players should be high intensity interval training (HIIT), in
which their bodies can be prepared to last the entire game without slowing down. Helgerud et
al. (2007) described the efficiency and benefit of HIIT through 4 x 4 min interval training to
improve VO2max, where athletes run for 4 minutes at 90-95% intensity, then rest for 3 minutes
for four times. High VO2max is necessary for optimal performance on the soccer pitch. As Hoff
(2005) indicated, the average elite soccer players were measured with 55 to 68 ml/kg/min.
In addition to the need to run quickly and consistently and often change directions, strength
and flexibility of the lower extremity are the musts for optimal performance as a soccer athlete.
Hoff (2005) pointed out that quadriceps strength must be above average, with a repetition
maximum of half squats at 120 to 180 kg. The relationship between hamstring and quadriceps
must be considered when participating in a soccer match for 90 minutes or more leads to a risk
of a hamstring strain due to fatigue (Small et al., 2010). Small et al. (2010) pointed out that
fatigue would inhibit the deceleration phase of the running gait over time. This leads to a 15.0%
reduction in the eccentric hamstring compared to the concentric quad ratio (Small et al., 2010).
Two energy systems are involved in the performance of soccer athletes on the pitch – aerobic
and anaerobic energy systems. The latter would be used for all sprints, at least 19.1 km/hour,
on the field, covering six seconds or less (Carling, 2010). The aerobic energy system is used for
the duration of the match due to the amount of endurance required to meet performance
requirements (Hoff, 2005; Helgerud et al., 2001).
The soccer athletes can be evaluated for their VO2max and determine whether they can
perform optimally on the soccer pitch. Cooper’s test is a well-known assessment tool to
indicate the VO2max level, where athletes must run as many laps as possible on the track within
twelve minutes (Cooper, 1968). The use of this test will help define the soccer athlete’s fitness.
As Hoff (2005) mentioned above, the average VO2max is 55 to 68 ml/kg/min, so a typical
distance run using Cooper (1968)’s standard table should be at least 2,700 meters to be
considered excellent and fit to participate in a soccer match.
Anderson, L., Orme, P., Di Michele, R., Close, G. L., Milsom, J., Morgans, R., Drust, B., & Morton,
J. P. (2016). Quantification of seasonal-long physical load in soccer players with different
starting status from the English Premier League: Implications for maintaining squad physical
fitness. International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance, 11(8), 1038–1046.
Bangsbo, J., Mohr, M., & Krustrup, P. (2006). Physical and metabolic demands of training and
match-play in the elite football player. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(7), 665–674.
Bradley, P. S., Sheldon, W., Wooster, B., Olsen, P., Boanas, P., & Krustrup, P. (2009). High-
intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches. Journal of sports sciences, 27(2),
Carling C. (2010). Analysis of physical activity profiles when running with the ball in a
professional soccer team. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(3), 319–326.
Cooper, K. H. (1968). A means of assessing maximal oxygen intake: Correlation Between field
and treadmill testing. Journal of American Medical Association, 203(3), 201-204.
Di Salvo, V., Baron, R., Tschan, H., Calderon Montero, F. J., Bachl, N., & Pigozzi, F. (2007).
Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer. International Journal
of Sports Medicine, 28(3), 222–227. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-924294
Helgerud, J., Engen, L. C., Wisloff, U., & Hoff, J. (2001). Aerobic endurance training improves
soccer performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(11), 1925–1931.
Helgerud, J., Hoydal, K., Wang, E., Karlsen, T., Berg, P., Bjerkaas, M., Simonsen, T., Helgesen, C.,
Hjorth, N., Bach, R., & Hoff, J. (2007). Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve VO2max more
than moderate training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(4), 665–671.
Hoff, J. (2005). Training and testing physical capacities for elite soccer players. Journal of Sports
Sciences, 23(6), 573–582.
Sariati, D., Hammami, R., Chtara, M., Zagatto, A., Boullosa, D., Clark, C., Hackney, A. C.,
Granacher, U., Souissi, N., & Zouhal, H. (2020). Change-of-direction performance in elite soccer
players: Preliminary analysis according to their playing positions. International Journal of
Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(22), 8360.
Small, K., McNaughton, L., Greig, M., & Lovell, R. (2010). The effects of multidirectional soccer-
specific fatigue on markers of hamstring injury risk. Journal of Science and Medicine in
Sport, 13(1), 120–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.08.005
Some common hip disorders are osteoarthritis, developmental dysplasia, Perthes disease,
irritable hip syndrome, soft tissue pain and referred pain, and slipped capital femoral epiphysis
(Kahn, 2018). I actually have the hip disorder slipped capital femoral epiphysis, where the head
of the proximal femur slips backward and downward at the point of growth plate. When I was
about 11 years old, I noticed a slight pain in my left hip that would linger every-so-often. I
ended having surgery on both of my hips and have not had any major complications (or
limitations) since then. Ironically, I have had foot complications in the past. The military did not
help with either of the problems in my hips, feet, or ankles; between the load bearing,
improper stretching, and overall workload, steps could have been implemented to better
protect my overall body. Weaker hip abductors can cause the legs to bow inward or outward,
causing either varus/bow-legged, or valgus/knock-kneed gait pattern (Walker, 2015). Internal
rotation or adduction (inward movements) are not ideal in the leg and promotes the inward
collapse of the ankle and foot (Speck, 2020). The muscles of the foot are relatively small that
can only counteract inward movements with a small amount of force (Speck, 2020).
Kahn, A. (2018, March 21). Hip pain and hip disorders: Types, symptoms, and causes. Healthline.
Retrieved December 3, 2021, from https://www.healthline.com/health/hip-disorders.
Speck, J. (2020, February 13). Hip weakness and Flat Feet. Fix Flat Feet. Retrieved December 3,
2021, from https://www.fixflatfeet.com/hip-weakness/.
Walker, A. (2015, November 21). The importance of your butt! don’t forget gluteus
medius! PhysioWorks, Sports and Wellness, Inc. Retrieved December 3, 2021, from
The body is an interconnected web of fascia working harmoniously to create a beautiful free-
flowing, and efficiently moving machine we call the human body. It is essential to analyze the
body in this regard instead of looking at each joint as an isolated “machine part.” When we see
the body interconnected in this way, we can often look above or below the affected joint
causing pain, comfort, or dysfunction to know how these proximal joints to the affected area
could be contributing to the pain.
It was interesting to me to search for research articles that most focused on dysfunction in the
foot to cause hip and knee problems. There was not as much research on the dysfunction in the
hip causing foot and ankle pain. One particular study performed by Jin Hyuck Lee, Jong Hoon
Park, and Woo Young Jang discussed how hip misalignment, pain, and dysfunction could lead to
gait problems that eventually make their way down the kinetic chain, causing foot and ankle
issues for the individual.
It was noted that potential weakness in the hip adductor muscles could play a prominent role in
the biomechanics of walking and its inherent connection to ankle stability Lee, J. H., Park, J. H.,
& Jang, W. Y. (2019). Increased compensatory mechanisms of the hip joint to decrease forefoot
plantar peak pressure from forefoot pain may have led to fatigue and weakness of the gluteal
muscles, which could have resulted in the client experiencing more right pelvic pain, conversely
increasing this compensatory pattern of the ankle joint caused by weakness in the hip abductor
muscles may have caused or contributed to the patients heel pain Lee, J. H., Park, J. H., & Jang,
W. Y. (2019). Another observation from this study indicated that weakness of the hip abductor
muscles while walking might result in plantar flexion overuse, which puts extra strain on the
plantar fascia, leading to plantar fasciitis. Lee, J. H., Park, J. H., & Jang, W. Y. (2019). Another
observation was that hip abductor muscles support postural stability in the frontal and sagittal
planes, leading to Trendelenburg gait, which laterally shifts concentrated pressure to forefoot
and heel areas, increasing the likelihood of foot and ankle injury pain.
All of the evidence in this study indicates the importance of strong hip muscles, specifically the
hip abductor muscles, in preventing ankle and foot dysfunction. The evidence also supports the
idea that hip weakness or dysfunction plays a significant role in ankle and foot dysfunction.
Lee, J. H., Park, J. H., & Jang, W. Y. (2019). The effects of hip strengthening exercises in a patient
with plantar fasciitis: A case report. Medicine, 98(26), e16258.