Nutrition And Fitness I need guidance with the Analysis of Scientific literature. NUFS/KIN 163 – Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose Stat

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I need guidance with the Analysis of Scientific literature.

NUFS/KIN 163 – Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University

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ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE #1 & #2

Directions

You will write two (2) Analyses of Scientific Literature papers. Each will be a 3 to 4 page critique of an

empirical research study that has been published in a peer-reviewed academic journal. The specific paper to be

critiqued for the 1st Analysis will be given to you by your instructor. For the second Analysis of Scientific

Literature you will need to find your own peer-reviewed paper that relates to whichever topic your group

selected from the list of suggested topics further down in this packet. The research study you select needs to be

recent, published within the last 10 years. The article you select will be the same one that you present for your

group oral presentation. The article must be referenced in your written assignment. Your instructor will provide

you with specific information on how to select a topic, how to find a worthwhile study to analyze, and how to

turn in your Analyses of Scientific Literature. Contact your instructor if you would like confirmation on the

paper you selected.

After the first Analysis of Scientific Literature, you will receive feedback on your critical evaluation skills.

Please use this feedback when preparing the second Analysis of Scientific Literature.

Please see the syllabus for the due dates for the two different analyses. Late papers will be docked 2.5 points

for each day or partial day late, so please be sure to turn your paper in on time.

Each student must do his/her own work. Plagiarism will not be tolerated and will result in a failing grade on the

assignment and the student being reported to the Office of Student Conduct and Ethical Development. Turnitin

will be enabled within Canvas and reports will reviewed by instructors prior to grading.

Form and Style Guidelines

Your paper should:

• be written in narrative, paragraph format, no numbering or bullets;

• be written in formal style-3rd person only (do not use 1st or 2nd person, such as “we”, “I” or “you”);

• be a professional critique and NOT contain overly personal opinion-based judgements;

• cite a professional reference for any nutrition or fitness guidelines or recommendations suggested in text
(see resource page in Syllabus);

• NOT use direct quotes or copied material from a source. Instead, paraphrase the source material using
YOUR OWN WORDS and cite appropriately in APA format;

• use past tense when describing the research;

• be typed, double spaced, and 3-4 pages in length;

• be in a font size that is Times New Roman 12 point or similar size (easy to read);

• be left justified (do not right justify/align, which centers text) and have 1-inch margins;

• be turned in on Canvas.

Guidelines for Analyzing Research:

Be sure to consider the suggestions from lecture and the handout “How to Understand and Interpret Food and

Health-Related Scientific Studies” when analyzing the articles. Use the questions below as a guide to critically

evaluate each section of the paper. Each one of these questions should be addressed within the paper.

NUFS/KIN 163 – Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University

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Analyses of Scientific Literature #1 & #2

Purpose: To understand how to critically read and analyze research articles.

For #1, your instructor will provide you with an article on Canvas. You can access the link to the article in the

assignment description. For #2, you will select your own study. Make sure to select either an experimental or

observational study so that all components of the assignment can be addressed, a review paper or meta-

analysis is not acceptable. The study you select needs to be recent, published within the last 10 years.

Directions

In a 3 to 4-page essay, briefly describe and then critically analyze all of the following components of the

study:

1. What is the research problem? Another way to think about this is: Why was this study conducted?

2. What is/are the hypothesis/hypotheses stated by the author(s)? If not stated directly, what does the
hypothesis appear to be?

3. A. Who were the study participants? How many were there and how were they recruited?

B. What were the inclusion/exclusion criteria for selecting the participants?

4. What was the study design?

5. What were the main study results? (Briefly reference numerical data when appropriate.)

6. Did the results support the authors’ hypothesis/hypotheses? Why or why not?

7. What was/were the limitation(s) and strength(s) discussed by the author(s)? These are usually in the
Discussion/Conclusion section of the article. Were there any additional strengths and weaknesses not

discussed by the author(s)? If so, discuss with a professional critique and do not use overly personal

opinion-based judgements.

A. What conclusion(s) did the author(s) make?

B. How can the research findings be applied? If no applications were suggested by the authors, provide

ideas for how the findings could be applied.

C. Based on this study and past research discussed in the Introduction, what directions should

researchers take for future study of this topic?

Use your own words to discuss the answers using information from the article. DO NOT use direct quotes or

copied material from the article. Instead, paraphrase the source material using YOUR OWN WORDS and

cite appropriately in APA format. Do not include the questions. Your paper should be written in paragraph

form; it should NOT be a list of the questions and your responses.

Your paper will be submitted to CANVAS with turnitin.com enabled by the instructor to check for plagiarism.

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SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR NUTRITION PRESENTATIONS
Please choose from this list or choose your own topic (if approved by instructor)

LIPIDS/FAT

Possible sub-topics

• Dietary fat recommendations/needs for children (< 2 yr olds), elderly

• Dietary fat and risk for various cancers

• Omega-3 fatty acid (linolenic acid) and treatment or prevention of diseases

• Fat replacements used in the food industry

PROTEIN and AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTS

Possible sub-topics

• Whey protein supplements for weight (muscle) gains

• Glutamine and the immune system and/or muscle recovery in athletes

• Creatine supplementation: effects on strength performance OR effects on endurance performance

• Nitrogen balance studies in determining protein needs for athletes

• Branched-chain amino acids and exercise performance

DRUGS, SUPPLEMENTS, HERBS & DIETS FOR WEIGHT CONTROL

Possible sub-topics:

• Evaluate hydroxycitrate supplement for weight loss

• Evaluate ketogenic diets for weight loss

• Evaluate intermittent fasting for weight loss

• Evaluate/review the “Phen-Fen” drugs

• Evaluate/review over-the-counter drug phenylpropanolamine, Alli, etc.

• Evaluate ephedrine (ephedra), EGCG, ginseng or Hoodia and weight loss

DISORDERED EATING ISSUES and OBESITY

Possible sub-topics

• Eating disorders: case studies, adverse complications, therapies, etc.

• Childhood obesity: prevalence, causes, and treatment

• Research in the area of obesity and genetics

• Adult obesity

VITAMINS & MINERALS IN HEALTH

Possible sub-topics

• Vitamin E’s role in reducing risk of heart disease or cancer

• Zinc and the common cold

• Folic acid deficiency and birth defects

• Folic acid, B6, and/or B12’s role in preventing heart disease

• Iron deficiency effects in the young (children)

• Vitamin D status and supplementation in the older population

VITAMINS, MINERALS & HERBS IN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

Possible sub-topics

• Iron deficiency & anemia in female athletes

• Coenzyme Q10 and exercise performance OR Ginseng supplementation and exercise performance

• Vanadium and body composition

• Antioxidant supplementation (such as vitamin E and vitamin C) and exercise

• Medium-chained triglycerides (MCTs) supplementation and exercise performance/body comp

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SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR FITNESS PRESENTATIONS
Please choose from this list or choose your own topic (topic must be approved by instructor)

EXERCISE AND AGING

Possible sub-topics:

• Effects of training on muscle strength and/or muscle mass of older adults, including underlying mechanisms

• Effects of training on cardiovascular function in older adults, including underlying mechanisms

• Effects of exercise and aging on changes in flexibility and mobility

• Effects of training on body composition of older adults.

• Exercise and the prevention of falls in older adults, as well as other changes in balance and equilibrium

EXERCISE AND COGNITION

Possible sub-topics:

• Effects of exercise on learning and/or learning disorders

• Effects of exercise on memory

• Exercise and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

• Exercise and prevention/treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and/or dementia

EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION FOR DIVERSE POPULATIONS

Possible sub-topics

• Exercise and prevention or treatment of Type II diabetes

• Exercise and prevention or treatment of hypertension

• Exercise and prevention or treatment of cancer

• Effects of strength training OR aerobic training on metabolic syndrome

• Effects of training on women during pregnancy OR effects of training post-pregnancy

EXERCISE IN DIVERSE ENVIRONMENTS

Possible sub-topics :

• Environmental impact on individuals exercising in the heat

• Environmental impact on individuals exercising in cold environments

• Environmental impact on individuals exercising in water environments

TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS

Possible sub-topics

• Effects of detraining on cardiovascular fitness or muscular fitness

• Effects of strength training on cardiovascular function

• Effects of overtraining

• Effects of strength training on improving fat utilization

• Effects of cardio training on body fat location and utilization

• Pre or Post exercise supplementation with fat, carbs or protein

EMOTIONAL/SOCIAL

Possible sub-topics

• Effect of physical activity on sleep OR stress

• Effect of physical activity on mood

• Effect of physical activity on anxiety

• Effect of physical activity on depression

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NUFS/KIN 163 GRADING CRITERIA

FOR RESEARCH ANALYSIS

“A” papers (receiving 90% or more of the total points) have the following characteristics:

• Carefully follow the content guidelines given by the instructor; responding to each question with descriptions and
critique for all components of the study;

• Carefully follow the guidelines for format; which includes not exceeding by more than one-half page the
maximum double-spaced pages allowed;

• Are written in standard English, at an upper division college level, with complete sentences and appropriate
paragraphs;

• Are written in the student’s own words, with no direct quotes or copied material;

• Are free of redundancies, and have, at most, only 2-3 spelling and/or grammatical errors;

• Develop each section of the critique in a clear and logical fashion; have smooth transitions from one sentence or
idea to another;

• Include insightful interpretation that goes beyond the obvious or what the authors disclosed;

• Cover all of the major aspects of the assignment without going off track or padding;

• Are turned in on the due date and time.

“B” papers (receiving 80-89% of the total points) usually differ from an “A” report in one or more of the following ways:

• Show less care in following the guidelines;

• Have a few lapses in good writing;

• Have less than full clarity in expression of ideas and interpretations;

• Show some tendency to go off track, pad the paper or have redundancies;

• Are old studies, published more than 10 years ago

• Are turned in one day or partial day late.

“C” papers (receiving 70-79% of the total points) usually differ from an “A” paper in 2 or more of the following ways:

• Show minimal care in following guidelines, leaving several components unaddressed;

• Have more than a few lapses in good writing;

• Use some ambiguous descriptions in the analysis or interpretation;

• Go off track, pad the paper, or have redundancy in more than one instance;

• Provide direct quotes rather than summarizing and/or paraphrasing;

• Are old studies, published more than 10 years ago

• Are turned in two days after the due date/time.

Papers less than “C” (receiving less than 70% of the total points) usually differ from an “A” paper in more than one of the

following ways:

• Do not follow guidelines, or do not address several of the required components;

• Are poorly written;

• Fail to interpret information correctly, or answer questions clearly;

• Frequently wander off track, are “padded” with extraneous information, or are redundant;

• Are old studies, published more than 10 years ago for nutrition, or 20 years for fitness

• Are turned in more than two days after the due date/time.

REMEMBER TO CONSULT THE GRADING RUBRIC FOR SUCCESS!

NUFS/KIN 163 – Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University

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Name _____________________________________

GRADING SHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF LITERATURE #1 & #2

CATEGORY

Followed directions,

originality report

obtained, format

Major flaws in

following directions,

format.

Followed some, but

not all directions;

and/or some

formatting errors.

Excellent format.

Possible Points 0-1 2-4 5

Writing, syntax, spelling,

grammar

Major flaws in

writing, syntax,

spelling and/or

grammar

Some errors in

writing, syntax,

spelling and/or

grammar

Well written.

Possible Points 0-5 6-8 9-10

Poor; showed lack

of understanding

Average Very good-excellent

Shows high level

understanding

Question 1 Stated research

problem clearly.

0-1 2-3 4

Question 2 Described

hypothesis/research

question/goal clearly.

0-2 3-4 5

Question 3 Described

participants and inclusion/

exclusion criteria

0-1 1.5 2-3

Question 4 Described the

study design

0-2 3-4 5-6

Question 5 Described the

results clearly

0-2 3-4 5-6

Question 6 Stated the

results relative to the

hypothesis

0 1 2

Question 7 Described

limitations and strengths

0-1 1.5 2-3

Question 8 Described

conclusions, future research

ideas and applications(s)

0-2 3-4 5-6

Subtotal

2.5 points will be deducted for each calendar day or partial day late Deductions (if late): ___________

Your Total: ___________

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GUIDELINES FOR ORAL PRESENTATION OF ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE #2

This is a group presentation where each member presents the study he/she selected and wrote about for the Analysis of

Scientific Literature #2 assignment. Each individual in the group should spend approximately 5 to 6 minutes leading a

discussion on his/her own article from the group’s agreed upon topic. Having each individual present their own article on

the same topic allows the overall group presentation to cover a variety of angles on the subject matter.

Presentation

• The presentation should begin with a brief introduction of the topic. This is often done by just one person and is not
considered part of his/her formal presentation.

• Each student’s introductory slide must contain a full APA reference for the research study including authors, year,
title, journal name, volume and pages.

• The presentation should include an evaluation (critique) of the research article including the purpose of the research,
methodology, results, conclusions, strengths/limitations, and applications to the “real” world. Students are encouraged

to evaluate studies that provide differing results.

• Students should be creative and use any or all of the following in their presentations: demonstrations, visual aides
(overheads, charts, handouts), and other techniques to inform and interest the audience. Students should practice oral

presentation etiquette which includes addressing and greeting the audience, introducing yourself and the study,

looking at the camera/audience instead of directly reading off of the slides.

• Once each student presents his/her own paper, the group will then need to compare and contrast their studies. This is
best done with each group member synthesizing their study results with the others and end with a “bottom line” type

of take away and conclusion. This is not a restatement of study characteristics (i.e., participant statistics, study

location, intervention type, etc.).

• This is a group assignment; therefore, each member should collaborate on the introduction, compare/contrast and the
conclusion.

Oral Presentation Slides & Recording: Both the slides and a recording of the presentation need to be uploaded to

Canvas. Only one group member needs to submit these because the assignment is listed as a group assignment and files

will show up in each member’s Canvas as submitted.

Evaluation of the oral presentation will be based on the following and a rubric is included with this

assignment:

1. Presentation skills (including adherence to time guidelines; organization of presentation/preparedness;
effectiveness of oral presentation (e.g., delivered without excessive reliance on notes); and effective use of visual

aids/ability to interest audience).

2. Ability to critically evaluate scientific research;
3. Ability to define/demonstrate practical application of the material;
4. Appropriateness of nutrition/fitness article;
5. Ability to compare & contrast article with other articles in group, contribution to group summary, conclusions and

“take away.”

This assignment is worth a total of 50 points, up to 25 points for each student’s individual presentation and up to 25 points

for a group grade. The group grade is calculated as the average of the group’s individual scores. This means that the total

score for each person is dependent upon the others in the group. To be most successful, communicate with your group

early on and commit to a schedule.

NUFS/KIN 163 – Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University

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Student Name:_______________________________ Date:__________________________

1. Presentation (Adherence to time guidelines; organization of presentation/preparedness; effectiveness of oral presentation

(delivered without excessive note reading; effective use of visual aids/ability to interest audience)

Poor Adequate Good Very Good Excellent

0-1 2 3 4 5

2. Ability to critically evaluate scientific research

Unacceptable/Poor Needs improvement Good Very good Excellent

No attempt to

evaluate study or

evaluative

statements

unsupported or

inappropriate

Student’s opinion of

the article is not

clear; critical

thinking is not

evident

Student’s opinion of the

article is stated, along with

critical evaluation of the

article’s premise and/or

argument, but some

significant points are

overlooked

Includes critical

thinking that clearly

states the student’s

opinion and some

evaluation of the

article’s premise

and/or arguments but

overlooks some points

Includes critical

thinking that clearly

states the student’s

informed and

substantiated opinion,

thorough evaluation of

the article’s premise,

and supporting points

0-1 2-3 4-6 7-9 10

3. Ability to define/demonstrate practical application of material

Unacceptable/Poor Needs improvement Good Very good Excellent

No attempt made to

describe context of

study or practical

application of

material

Attempt made to

discuss practical

application but

missed the mark

Good attempt made to

discuss practical application

but could be improved

Practical application of

material clearly

described

Practical application

of material very

clearly described by

providing a number of

examples

0 1 2 3 4

4. Appropriateness of nutrition/fitness article

Poor Needs improvement Good Very good Excellent

0 .5 1.5 1.75 2

5. Ability to compare/contrast article with other group articles, contribution to group summary/conclusions and “take away”

Poor Below average Average Very good Excellent

Student fails to

mention how article

compares and

contrasts with

others’ article;

demonstrates low or

non-existent level of

understanding

regarding how

article chosen fits in

with other articles;

fails to include

article in

introduction and

conclusion.

Student fails to

mention how article

compares and

contrasts with others’

article or does not

correctly put article

in context;

demonstrates low

level of

understanding

regarding how article

chosen fits in with

other articles; fails to

include article in

introduction and

conclusion

Student does an adequate

job explaining how article

compares and contrasts with

others’ article; demonstrates

average level of

understanding regarding

how article chosen fits in

with other articles; fails to

include article in

introduction and/or

conclusion.

Student does a very

good job explaining

how article compares

and contrasts with

others’ article;

demonstrates good but

not great level of

understanding

regarding how article

chosen fits in with

other articles; includes

article in introduction

and conclusion.

Student does an

excellent and thorough

job explaining how

article compares and

contrasts with others’

article; demonstrates

high level of

understanding

regarding how article

chosen fits in with

other articles; includes

article in introduction

and conclusion.

0 1 2 3 4

Total Points – Individual __________ / 25

Total Points – Group Average __________ / 25

GRAND TOTAL POINTS __________ / 50

NUFS/KIN 163 – Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University

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CONSUMER PRODUCT: FITNESS & NUTRITION

Purpose of the Assignment: to evaluate an electronic advertisement in a way that the student becomes

a more critical consumer. The advertisement will be evaluated by comparing the claims made in the ad

to scientific evidence and research findings.

Ad Selection: For Nutrition, your instructor will provide two options, along with their URLs in the

Assignment itself on Canvas. You will choose which one you want to research for this paper. For

Fitness, you will also be provided the URL of the fitness ad on Canvas. If you opt to do this, make sure

to pick an advertisement that has some substance to it, the less the ad says, the harder it is to critique.

Original advertisements should not come from library sources or magazines.

Assignment Format:

Page 1: Title page with the product name/advertisement

Pages 2 to 4 (or 5): Consumer Product Analysis

This section contains your analysis of both the ad itself and the product advertised. Evaluating the ad

itself is very important however the primary purpose of this paper is evaluating the product and whether

there is research to support its claims. The paper should be 3-4 pages. You should comment on the
positive aspects (praise) and the negative aspects (criticism) of the ad. Your analysis should be in

paragraph form, and critical comments should be well developed and substantiated (cited) by the

research studies you use for this assignment. When discussing scientific articles to analyze the product,

do NOT use direct quotes or copied material from the scientific articles. Instead, paraphrase the

information in your own words and cite appropriately in APA format. In the text of your paper, the

author & year of the scientific source should be indicated. When more than two authors are cited, “et

al.,” may be used as per APA format (however, remember to include all names on Reference Page.).

See example below:

According to Maughan et al. (2013), creatine supplementation has been shown to significantly increase

total body mass in subjects over a 4-week period.

When discussing the advertisement or product description, you may make limited use of short

quotations (<40 words) from the ad or product description, but they should be in APA format and cited

properly with page numbers, and author/year.

When critically evaluating the advertisement, comment on the text, and use of color and graphics.

You need to include comments about all of the following questions:

• Who appears to be the intended consumer?

• What techniques are used to draw the attention of the reader? Are they successful or not? Again,
consider wording, terminology, graphics and more.

• Is the ad straightforward and factual? Explain.

• Is any important information omitted that should be disclosed to the consumer?

• What gimmicks are used to sell the product? Were the gimmicks successful?

When critically evaluating the product, incorporate responses to all of the following questions but do

not limit your critique to the questions below. This product evaluation should make up the majority of

the paper.

• Is the use of this product supported by scientific evidence? If so, are there any conflicting results
among various studies? Do the subjects’ age, health condition, fitness level, etc. match those for

whom the ad is directed? Were there limitations and/or flaws in these studies? Describe the studies,

NUFS/KIN 163 – Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University

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in your own words, to defend your statements and give evidence for or against the claims made in

the ad.

• What, if any, contribution would the consumption or use of the product make to the nutrient intake,
physique, or fitness level of the intended consumer?

• How much does the product cost? Could some less expensive product be used to obtain the same
results? If so, what?

• What hazards/adverse effects might be associated with the use of this product? Are there any
conditions (e.g., medical, age-related) that would contraindicate the use of the product?

The Consumer Product paper is aimed to analyze the product and provide research studies to

demonstrate support, or lack thereof, of the product’s claims. This might necessitate a detailed

discussion of the study if relevant to the product directly. You should avoid summarizing the studies

independent from one another and the product.

Page 5 or 6: References

This is a separate page and should be headed “References” at the top center of the page.

List the source of the advertisement, and alphabetically list the references used to support your

evaluation. Do not alphabetize “within” each referen

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