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3.8 Management and leadership skills

The hard skills of management, as well as leadership, involve those skills that are in control whereas the soft skills of the management and leadership involve those skills, which are not in control. Therefore, hard skills are such skills, which are teachable and are easily measurable. On the other hand, the soft skills of management and leadership are not easily measurable or teachable.

Currently, within the sector of hospitality services, the managers, as well as leaders of the firms possess the following skills:

3.8.1 Management and Leadership Current Soft Skills

Soft skills are different from hard skills, which are directly relevant to the job to which you are applying. These are often more quantifiable, and easier to learn than soft skills (Doyle, 2020). A hard skill for a carpenter, for example, might be the ability to operate a power saw or use framing squares (Doyle, 2021).

Regardless of the job to which you’re applying, you need at least some soft skills. In order to succeed at work, you must get along well with all the people with whom you interact, including managers, co-workers, clients, vendors, customers, and anyone else you communicate with while on the job. These are the types of skills all employers value (Doyle, 2021).

Examples of soft skills include:

· Communication

· Flexibility

· Leadership

· Motivation

· Patience

· Persuasion

· Problem Solving Abilities

· Teamwork

· Time Management

· Work Ethic

· Team Dynamics

· Strategic mindset

· Delegation

1. Communication

Communication skills are important in almost every job. You will likely need to communicate with people on the job, whether they are clients, customers, colleagues, employers, or vendors. You will also need to be able to speak clearly and politely with people in person, by phone, and in writing.

You will also likely need to be a good listener. Employers want employees who can not only communicate their own ideas, but who also listen empathetically to others. For example, listening is a particularly important skill in customer service jobs and GM listening to the guest compliants (Doyle, 2021).

· Listening

· Negotiation

· Nonverbal communication

· Persuasion

· Presentation

· Public speaking

· Reading body language

· Storytelling

· Verbal communication

· Visual communication

· Writing reports and proposals

· Writing skill

2. Critical Thinking


No matter what the job, employers want candidates who can analyze situations and make informed decisions. Whether you are working with data, teaching students, or fixing a home heating system, you need to be able to understand problems, think critically, and devise solutions. For example, promoting a teamwork to approach problem solving also using your time wisely. The GM of the hotel assigned crisis management team to respond to the crisis. Skills related to critical thinking include creativity, flexibility, and curiosity (Doyle, 2021).

· Adaptability

· Artistic aptitude

· Creativity

· Critical observation

· Critical thinking

· Design aptitude

· Desire to learn

· Flexibility

· Innovation

· Logical thinking

· Problem solving

· Research

· Resourcefulness

· Thinking outside the box

· Tolerance of change and uncertainty

· Troubleshooting

· Value education

· Willingness to learn

3. Leadership



While not every job opening is a leadership role, most employers will want to know that you have the ability to make decisions when push comes to shove, and can manage situations and people. The ability to step up to the plate in a difficult situation and to help to resolve it is something employers look for in prospective employees’ Other skills related to leadership include the abilities to resolve problems and conflicts between people, and to make executive decisions (Doyle, 2021). For example, managing projects and customers. Also, the GM lead by examples and listen even in disagreement.

· Conflict management

· Deal making

· Decision making

· Delegation

· Dispute resolution

· Facilitation

· Giving clear feedback

· Inspiring people

· Leadership

· Management

·
Managing difficult conversations

· Managing remote/virtual teams

· Meeting management

· Mentoring

· Motivating

· Project management

· Resolving issues

· Successful coaching

· Supervising

· Talent management

4. Positive Attitude

Employers are always seeking people who will bring a positive attitude to the office. They want employees who will be friendly to others, eager to work, and generally a pleasure to be around. Being able to keep things positive is especially important if you’re working in a fast-paced, high- stress work environment (Doyle, 2021). For example, the GM Respect for Others and Commitment to the Job. Also, the GM motives employees by using positive words.

· Confidence

· Cooperation

· Courtesy

· Energy

· Enthusiasm

· Friendliness

· Honesty

· Humorous

· Patience

· Respectability

· Respectfulness

5. Teamwork

Hiring managers look for job candidates who can work well with others. Whether you will be doing a lot of team projects or simply attending a few departmental meetings, you need to be able to work effectively with the people around you. You need to be able to work with others even if you do not always see eye to eye.



Some skills related to teamwork include the ability to negotiate with others, and to recognize and appreciate diversity in a team. Another related skill is the ability to accept and apply feedback from others (Doyle, 2021). For example, the hotel manager fostering a culture of trust and respect.

· Accepting feedback

· Customer service

· Dealing with difficult situations

· Dealing with office politics

· Disability awareness

· Diversity awareness

· Emotional intelligence

· Empathy

· Establishing interpersonal relationships

·
Dealing with difficult personalities

· Intercultural competence

· Interpersonal skills

· Influence

· Networking

· Persuasion

· Self-awareness

· Selling skills

· Social skills

· Team building

· Teamwork

6. Work Ethic

Employers look for job candidates with a strong work ethic. Such people come to work on time, complete tasks in a timely manner, stay focused, and stay organized. They are able to budget their time and complete their work thoroughly. While they can work independently, people with a strong work ethic can also follow instructions (Doyle, 2021). For example, the hotel manager fair with employees and customers

· Attentiveness

· Business ethics

· Competitiveness

· Dedication

· Dependability

· Following direction

· Independence

· Meeting deadlines

· Motivation

· Multitasking

· Organization

· Perseverance

· Persistence

· Planning

· Proper business etiquette

· Punctuality

· Reliability

· Resilience

· Results-orientation

· Scheduling

· Self-direction

· Self-monitoring

· Self-supervising

· Staying on task

· Strategic planning

· Time management

7. Team dynamics

The general manager of hotel should take numerous responsibilities; in this way, they ought to be multitasker. The worldwide guest relations, housekeeping, front desk, maintaining, staff development and finances. A manager may further segue from workforce testing to assess on food and beverage level arrangement for a few meetings within the center of hotel’s conference.

8. Strategic mindset

The manager of hotel is considered as proficient trouble-shooter. They must think of numerous inventive as well as viable answers in a fast-moving culture. They require the ability to be argue by application of numerous common kinds of senses to wrap up their accountabilities. The directors of hotels ought to know math to test finance-based information or data. The manager is the third authorized individual to sign the hotels payable framework.

9. Problem-solving

A manager of a hotel ought to be people-based person with a few interpersonal levels of ability set in arrange to keep the visitors and workforce happy. The manager helps to awesome as well as register all the guests as well as bargain with issues.

10. Motivating

Successful executive comes with skilled in methodology to efficiently encourage and inspire the workforces. At the same time, it is correct that workforce is getting salaries, motivation is much higher than just getting a pay cheque. Motivation also based on ensuring employees are identified, appreciated, as well as have a clear direction for high career advancement.

11. Delegating

Another important feature for successful manager of a hotel is the capacity to share knowledge. The ideal in the sector waste no chance to groom the staff for a long run career in the hospitality sector. Guest constantly challenges are the perfect option to train the staff on efficient problem-solving tools learned from the experience. Free and open exchange of sector best solution is important to the success of any company, mainly those that are people focused.

12. Decision-making

Training of leadership is crucial is since a majority of people cant take the right decisions. For example, the hotel manager take decisions on business operation and growth

13. Empowerment

Organization more often than not fall flat since their workforce lack some hard skills. Through a mix of pre-employment screening as well as worker training, those are regularly pretty well focused. It is really common for business to confront disappointment since leadership has actually lacked numerous soft skills. For example, the GM  give employees greater authority and responsibility to take care of the needs of the customer and to provide employees with the means for making influential decisions.

14. Empathy

emotional intelligence or empathy is another kind of soft skills where a few individuals naturally consist and other must be past of teaching. A individual who is non-empathetic in a manager role can further cause a lot of harm within the work culture. For example, the GM is encouraging and supportive at the workplace

15. More Soft Skills

Here are additional soft skills for resumes, cover letters, job applications, and interviews. Required skills will vary based on the job for which you’re applying, so also review our list of skills listed by job and type of skill (Doyle, 2021).

· Assertiveness

· Business ethics

· Business storytelling

· Business trend awareness

· Customer Service

· Effective communicator

· Emotion management

· Ergonomic sensitivity

· Follow instructions

· Follow regulations

· Follow rules

· Functions well under pressure

· Good attitude

·
Highly recommended

· Independent

· Interviewing

· Knowledge management

· Meets deadlines

· Motivating

· Perform effectively in a deadline

· Performance management

· Positive work ethic

· Problem solving

· Process improvement

· Quick-witted

· Results oriented

· Safety conscious

· Scheduling

· Self-awareness

· Self-supervising

· Stress management

· Team player

· Technology savvy

· Technology trend awareness

· Tolerant

· Trainable

· Training

· Troubleshooting

· Willing to accept feedback

· Willingness to learn

· Work-life balance

· Works well under pressure

Examples on Soft skills from the industry

3.8.2 Management and Leadership Current Hard Skills

1. Computer Technology

In today’s world, all employees must possess at least a basic grasp of computer technology, and many companies require candidates to apply for jobs using technology-based platforms (Doyle, 2020). For examples, the GM prepares reports to the owning company

·
Microsoft Office Suite

· Social media

· HTML

· Analytics

· Pivot tables

2. Hard Communication Skills

While effective communication is often viewed as a soft skill, there are several ways that your concrete strengths as a communicator can be demonstrated. Effectively showcasing your communication skills can help you stand out from other candidates (Doyle, 2020). The leader and managers in the hotels speaks at least two foreign languages

Take a look at the following examples of hard communication skills you could put on your resume:

· Foreign language

· Digital communication

·
Copywriting

· Examples of Hard Skills

3. Data Analysis

Data analysis skills are highly valued across a wide variety of industries – not just in finance. The ability to analyze data and then use that information for the benefit of your company is extremely useful.

From a financial perspective, employees who care about the company’s bottom line are highly valued. If you’re good at eliminating waste and can demonstrate you can make the most of the company’s dollar and time, include resource management on your resume (Doyle, 2020).

If you have abilities in these areas, be sure to share that with your prospective employer:

· Data mining

· Data presentation

· Resource management

· Data engineering

· Database management

· Any use of data to explore a problem or decide.

4. Certifications and Licenses

While they may not be hard skills themselves, certifications and licenses are perfect for proving to potential employers that you possess certain sought-after abilities

If you have any that are specific to the job or industry you are applying to, you should always clearly showcase them on your resume (Doyle, 2020).

Some common types of certifications and licenses include:

· Learning management systems, such as Blackboard, Canvas, or Eagle

· Data management systems, such as Colleague

· Healthcare related licenses

· Certificates, awards, badges, and industry-recognized credentials

5. Marketing

The ability to convince consumers to purchase a company’s products or services will always be invaluable to potential employers. After all, success in marketing directly correlates to an increase in revenue (Doyle, 2020).

There are a number of hard marketing skills that have become incredibly sought after in recent years:

· Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

· Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

·
Marketing Campaign Management

· Google Analytics

· Content Management Systems (CMS), such as WordPress

6. Project Management

Project management is a profession that spans various industries, including information technology, healthcare, and construction. Because of this, project management skills have become extremely valuable to many employers (Doyle, 2020).

Some hard project management skills include:

· Agile methodologies, such as Scrum

· Project management software, such as Trello and Zoho

7.
Design

While being artistically talented is a natural ability, there are certain design elements and tools that must be learned through education or training. As technology has advanced, consumer’s standards for design aesthetics has also increased.

This is both a boon and a curse for all types of designers. While it means your skills are more in demand, it also means there are a number of new tools you might need to learn in order to build a successful career.

Here are some examples of some of the hard design skills most desired by employers:

· User Interface (UI) Design

· User Experience (UX) Design

·
Adobe Creative Suite (Photoshop, InDesign, etc.)

· Digital Product Design Software, such as In Vision and Zeppelin

8. Mobile & Web Development

Multiple new websites are created every second, and on mobile, over 6,000 apps were released per day in the first quarter of 2018 on Android alone. All of these websites and apps can only be created by people with the necessary mobile and web development skills (Doyle, 2020).

Here are some examples of the kind of hard skills you need to become a successful developer:

· Software Revision Control Systems

·
Android Development

· iOS App Development

· Web Architecture and Development Framework

· Angular and Node Apps

9. Network Structure & Security

A company’s data is priceless – if the sensitive data is leaked or stolen due to faulty network security, it could cost a company thousand, if not millions, of dollars. IT professionals who have the skills to protect that data are in higher demand than ever before (Doyle, 2020).

Being a company’s data shield is no easy feat, however, and would require you to learn some of the following:

· Encryption Algorithms

·
Authentication Systems

· Risk Assessment

· Cryptography

· Virtual and Host-based Firewalls

10. Office Skills

Essential capability with office software like Microsoft Office, Adobe, Google Docs and any significant industry-specific programs is basic for directors. Besides, depending on the industry, a capability with money related and bookkeeping computer program, information passage, prevalent web distributing stages and HR and planning programs may be required

11. Technical Writing

Managers may communicate objectives and enlightening to workers, make training materials, record and document imperative forms, produce product and service depictions and hand-off office and venture statuses to upper administration. All require clear concise proficient writing abilities , as well as communicating complex forms and methods in writing.

12. Information Technology

IT plays a critical part in many companies’ operations nowadays; subsequently, having a working information of IT essentials may be accommodating.

13. Project Management

Management may involve overseeing employees throughout multiple stages of one or more projects, making the ability to coordinate activities and monitor progress toward specific goals useful. Even those not working directly in project management roles should understand the basic processes and resources required to plan and execute a long-term project.

14. Data Management and Analytics

Efficiently and accurately gather information relevant to the continued operations of a business, appraise the data for specific trends or potential issues and hand-off discoveries to upper management. Depending on the position and industry, managers may be anticipated to be recognizable with particular information collection and analytics apparatuses and program (American Interconversion College, 2020).

All departments in Sheraton hotel work on the automated control system

15. Examples of Hard Skills

Some of the most in-demand hard skills include:

· Bilingual or multilingual

· Database management

· Network security

· Statistical analysis

· Data mining

The following are examples of some of the hard skills required for different occupations.

· Accounting

· Administrative

· Analysis

· Analytics

·
Automotive

· Banking

· Bookkeeping

· Carpentry

· Computer

· Construction

· Data

· Design

· Editing

· Electrical

· Engineering

· Financial

· Hardware

·
Healthcare

· Information Technology

· Languages

· Legal

· Manufacturing

· Math

· Mechanical

· Medical

· Nursing

· Optimization

· Pharmaceutical

· Pipefitter

· Plumbing

· Project Management

· Programming

· Research

· Reporting

· Science

· Software

· Spreadsheets

· Teaching

· Technology

· Testing

· Translation

· Transcription

· Word Processing

· Writing

Examples on Hard skills from the industry

These skills make the leadership style simpler and superior conjointly successful in terms of choices and issue fathoming, so the leader or manager will select through these skills the leading implies to solve problems and make decisions that make the company the best and the primary within the market, but within the nonattendance of these skills was not able Both the leader and manager know of making the decision accurately and tackling staff problems appropriately driving to the organization’s failure and financial loss. Moreover, performing particular tasks will be less demanding, easier and more efficient.

3.8.3 Future Soft Skills for Leaders and Managers

1. Diversity/ Inclusion

An awareness of diversity and inclusion extends far beyond the internal work. Diversity and inclusion also encompasses customers, suppliers, and other outside resources. In addition to ethnic and cultural differences, there are also generational differences and gender to consider. True diversity must include those both inside and outside your business structure. Diversity and inclusion in a workplace or organization brings many advantages including increased creativity, productivity and problem solving. Enhanced communication and an expanded market share are also real benefits. Inclusion adds value to employees that leads to retention and increases the ability to attract top talent from many resources. Sheraton hotel employed staff from different cultures and different generations.

2. Setting Up Recognition Program

Recognition programs within an organization acknowledge the individuals and teams that consistently contribute to your organization’s success. Setting up an ongoing recognition program that honors, and thanks loyal staff and team members increases overall job satisfaction. Encourage team leaders to acknowledge contributions from individual team members on a regular basis with a word of thanks, or repeating an encouraging comment made by a satisfied customer. Including an unexpected thank you to those working behind the scenes should also be a part of any ongoing recognition programs you develop. Sheraton hotel employs different loyalty programs and monetary schemes.

3. Executive Coaching

Executive coaching is a relationship that provides motivation and inspiration to make changes that transform employees and those around them to obtain optimal results personally and professionally. In supporting growth and change both the individual and organization benefits. Ideally, executive coaching helps leaders and those with leadership potential to examine possibilities and transfer their discoveries to move themselves and the organization forward. Sheraton has a development and training programs for the staff starting with induction and orientation to managerial development programs.

4. Recruiting Effectively

Recruiting includes the capacity to effectively distinguish, pull in and hire talented people with the potential to move your organization towards fulfilling your goals. Typically accomplished through focused on advertising and focused meeting of perspective candidates. Consider counting a clear mission statement as part of your recruitment promoting. This is often likely to pull in those with the ability and crave to ended up a part of your mission to move your organization forward. Clear job descriptions and skills lists assist help narrow the field of candidates.

Leaders must not only evaluate, spur, empower, and discipline workers but moreover construct teams, resolve conflicts, and develop the organization’s desired culture. Understanding how to impact individuals and accommodate their needs is a basic component of leadership, which all as well numerous companies neglect when they essentially put somebody with the foremost technical skill in a position of authority. Soft skills development is regularly a key component of leadership preparing, and training

Leaders and managers with great soft skills tend to have solid situational mindfulness and enthusiastic insights that permits them to explore difficult working situations whereas still creating positive comes about. This is often particularly vital for authority positions since great administration is more around overseeing individuals and directing their endeavors toward a craved result instead of bringing any specific specialized aptitudes to bear.

Another good thing about delicate abilities within the work environment is that they offer assistance individuals to adjust to changing circumstances. Being able to communicate viably amid a time of vulnerability or collaborate with others when arrangements aren’t instantly self-evident is tremendously imperative whether somebody is in a leadership position or not (Best Colleges, 2017).

3.8.4 Future Hard Skills for Leaders and Managers

According to Khatib (2020), the most want hard skills for the future are

1. Blockchain expertise

Cryptocurrency mining and associated skills are not yet common but for those who have it, it’s immensely valuable. To build your blockchain skills, you’ll also need a solid base of coding and software development skills.  

2. Cloud Computing

As network and internet technology has advanced, more and more businesses have turned to cloud computing as a convenient data storage and management solution. This means that people who have the skills to build and manage cloud networks are in high demand (Doyle, 2020).


The following are some examples of the kind of hard skills employers look for when hiring cloud computing professionals:

· Cloud Architecture

· Storage and Data Management

· Networking Communication

· Cloud Middleware Technologies

· Cloud Applications, such as JSON, Rest, and RPC

3. Artificial intelligence

Machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) are increasingly being used for business analysis, predictive algorithms, and metrics, or interacting with customers.  Data analysis skills are also a valuable starting block if you’re interested in building your AI skills.

AI software worldwide is forecast to grow from $10 bn in revenues in 2018 to $126 bn by 2025.

4. UX design

User experience (UX) happens when you use an app, especially when it’s bad, or slow, or clunky. With so much of commerce and business conducted via online platforms, those who can design and refine a good UX are a hot commodity for most companies. 

5. Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing is rapidly rising as a must-have hard skill. Affiliate marketing leverages company partnerships or influencers that are hyper-targeted to a particular audience. 

6. Sales

Who doesn’t need sales experience? Those who can effectively relate to customers, manage a sales team, understand the sales funnel, and sell into the highest levels of the business, are in demand now and forever.

7. Video Production

Consumers have an insatiable appetite for video content, so it makes sense that video production continues to be a priority for companies. Cisco estimates that video will account for 82% of global internet traffic in 2022, up from 75% in 2018. 

8. Writing Skills

A solid grasp of writing techniques will give your career a boost if your job requires any sort of writing (quarterly reports, onboarding documents, presentations for clients, sales pitches, etc.).

Skills include note-taking, letter and email writing, business writing, creative writing, SEO, and others. 

9. Digital literacy

Up to 84 percent of employers plan to swiftly digitalize work processes in the near future, with a fair number intending to use digital tools to connect employees and bridge divides caused by COVID-19. Over t

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