help with disc (6) due in72 hours due in 72 hours attached 10 Balancing Life as a Leader John Howard/ Digital Vision/ Thinkstock Learning Objectives Af

Click here to Order a Custom answer to this Question from our writers. It’s fast and plagiarism-free.

help with disc (6) due in72 hours due in 72 hours

attached 10 Balancing Life as a Leader

John Howard/ Digital Vision/ Thinkstock

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

• Successfully cope with stress.
• Effectively manage time.
• Balance the relationship between work and life outside of work.

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 319 3/3/16 1:18 PM

Section 10.1 Stress Management

Introduction

The world of advertising is fast-paced, challenging, and, many would say, pretty stressful. In
the middle of that environment, Zehnder Communications expresses the mantra “Have Fun!”
CEO Jeffrey Zehnder has built a full-service agency that “continually challenges traditional
thinking.” His company

encourages the tinkering, the restlessness, the keep-you-up-all-night ideas
that make us a better agency. It’s a way to give those new ideas a place to live
so that we continue our education by teaching each other, developing new
marketing strategies or channels, challenging ourselves, challenging each
other, and collaborating on end results. These ideas can end up in our client
work, or they might be used to help a cause or a charity, an improvement to
the city, or even something that makes a great place to work an even better
one. (Zehnder Communications, 2015, para. 1)

At the same time, his creativity “involves finding a true balance—whether it’s between artistic
inspiration and airtight strategy, or tenacious work and enjoying who you’re doing it with.”
Building the agency into what it is today “has been made possible by striking just the right
chords to create an incredibly talented, dedicated group that provides great results for a
diverse range of motivated clients.”

One of the company’s most noted innovations is the VAN program. “Vacation as needed”
means that anyone who thinks it is time for a little break can take one—as long as his or her
work is up to date and being away will not slow down any other employee’s tasks. The net
result has been an inspired, motivated, but balanced workforce that continues to produce
high-quality work.

Zehnder’s accolades include being named Ad Executive of the Year by the Ad Club of New
Orleans and receiving the American Advertising Federation’s Silver Medal Award. He also
won the March Madness office pool. He asks, “How’s that for balance?”

This chapter examines three important aspects of leadership. The first, stress management,
has an impact on you as a leader as well as on any organization where you work. Second,
time management constitutes a key skill in today’s fast-paced environment. Finally, achieving
work-life balance goes a long way toward making sure you have a long-lasting, successful, and
satisfying career. All three skills are needed for success in one’s personal life and work life.

10.1 Stress Management

We live in a high-stress world that is becoming increasingly challenging in both our personal
and work lives. Many believe that global, national, local, and societal challenges; unpredict-
able economic conditions; and rising healthcare and other critical lifestyle costs will continue
to escalate stress levels. Add to this living in a high-tech world where people are connected
to information 24/7; the breakdown of traditional support systems such as the family; and
the busy, fast-moving, complex lives that people live today, and it becomes apparent that you
need to be skilled at managing stress or you might eventually suffer consequences. At the

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 320 3/3/16 1:18 PM

Section 10.1 Stress Management

organizational level, stress costs organizations of all types and sizes billions of dollars in
decreased productivity and increased mistakes, accidents, absenteeism, turnover, healthcare
costs, and lawsuits (American Psychological Association, 2016; Jamal, 1984; American Insti-
tute of Stress, n.d.).

Stress management is a skill that affects every aspect of our lives and the quality of life that
we experience. Effective stress management can improve your mental, emotional, and physi-
cal health and increase the probability of having a longer and happier life. It can improve your
productivity (Ivancevich & Matterson, 1981; Allen, Hitt, & Greer, 1982) and consequently
make you more promotable. When people are being considered for promotion, a major factor
can be how well they handle problems, challenges, and stressful situations. Effective stress
management can also give you a greater sense of control over your life.

There is another important incen-
tive for becoming skilled at man-
aging stress: Stress has a multi-
plier effect. Stressed people are
likely to become stress carriers
who spread their stress to oth-
ers. They spread tension, create
anxiety, and keep people on edge.
In fact, people who get stressed
easily often deal with their stress
by taking it out on others. This is
particularly important for leaders
to understand. One study found
that about two out of three work-
ers say that their bosses are their
major source of stress at work,
more so than any other personal,
organizational, or environmental factor (Shipper & Wilson, 1992). Leaders play a critical role
in how stressful work is for their followers (McCormick & Powell, 1988).

There is a third incentive for developing skills in managing stress. It is a learnable skill. You
will learn in this chapter that you can change how you view and manage stress, and that by
doing so you can remove much of the fear of stress and can turn your ability to manage stress
into a strength that will prove to be a major asset in your personal and professional life.

Defining Stress

One of the continuing issues in stress management is definitional. There are any number of
versions of definitions. Schuler (1980) defines stress as a dynamic condition in which an indi-
vidual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual
desired and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Another
version suggests that stress occurs when a situation poses challenges that exceed an indi-
vidual’s ability to deal with them (Elsbach, Kayes, & Kayes, 2016).

Some writers distinguish between challenge-related stress and hindrance-related stress.
Challenge-related stress is sometimes called “eustress,” or literally “good” stress, that comes

Purestock/Thinkstock

Stress tends to have a multiplier effect; people who are
stressed can transfer stress to others.

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 321 3/3/16 1:18 PM

StressEvents
lead to

EventsStress
leads to

Section 10.1 Stress Management

from a positive experience that involves achievement or overcoming a problem. Hindrance-
related stress is negative and results from excessive or undesirable constraints that interfere
with an individual’s ability to achieve goals.

Stress management involves mental, emotional, physical, and behavioral responses to
anxiety- producing events along with the challenges in everyday life and work. It begins with
an event or series of events, good or bad, that cause anxiety. It can come from achieving some-
thing special and knowing that you will have to say a few words when receiving an award
or from tension in a relationship or from experiencing a difficult situation or event. People
tend to respond mentally by the way they perceive and process the stress that is occurring,
emotionally by how they react, physically by how the body responds, and behaviorally by the
choices they make.

Stress is personal. People react to the same circumstances differently (Benner, 1984; McCau-
ley, 1987). Some overreact to minor issues and others seem to be able to handle challenges,
difficulties, setbacks, and trials with calmness and minimal effects. On an individual level,
stress is relative to the type of stress, how much we have, how long we have it, and how well
we manage it. The most important factor is how well we manage it. According to the American
Institute of Stress (AIS), stress is the number one health problem in the United States and most
likely in the world (Marksberry, 2013). Stress can potentially cause physical, psychological,
behavioral, and relational problems and can shorten one’s life span (Chida & Hamer, 2008).

Models of Stress

One approach to understanding stress, the antecedent model you see in Figure 10.1, implies
that various forces cause stress. As an example, “She was going through a messy divorce and
experienced a great deal of stress because of it,” or “He was in financial trouble and felt really
stressed out as a result.” In both of those examples, stress is a condition in which an individual
confronts a situation in which the outcome is uncertain and important (Schuler, 1980).

A second conceptualization of stress focuses on what happens as a consequence. As Figure
10.2 shows, the outcome model of stress notes what happens when a person is routinely
overwhelmed by stressful events (Sailer, Schlacter, & Edwards, 1982). Someone might say,
“He was under so much stress that he had a heart attack,” or “She was so stressed out that she
had a nervous breakdown.”

Figure 10.1: The antecedent model of stress

StressEvents
lead to

Figure 10.2: An outcome model of stress

EventsStress
leads to

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 322 3/3/16 1:19 PM

StressEvents Events

Antecedents Outcomes

Life
Work
Individual Temperament

Physical
Mental
Social/Behavioral

Section 10.1 Stress Management

Antecedents or Causes of Stress: Life Events
Many sources of stress emerge away from work. Certain disruptions or changes lead to men-
tal pressure on individuals. These stressors can be family or nonfamily related. You can see
examples of each in Table 10.1 (Holmes & Holmes, 1970).

Table 10.1: Life events as sources of stress

Family Problems Nonfamily-Oriented Problems

Marriage Jail term

Divorce Personal injury or illness

Marital separation Outstanding personal achievement

Marital reconciliation Death of close friend

Death of spouse Financial problems

Death of family member Change in residence

Sexual problems New mortgage

Pregnancy Change in living conditions

Gain of new family member Change in social activities

Son or daughter leaving home Traffic ticket

Problems with in-laws

Holidays

Based on Holmes & Holmes, 1970

So, which is the case? Is stress a cause or an effect? In 1951, one famous quote suggested that
“[s] tress in addition to being itself, was also the cause of itself, and the result of itself ” (American
Institute of Stress, 2011). Further, counselors and managers may focus more on helping individu-
als cope with stress-related problems. Assuming their perspective merits equal attention, a more
complete stress model can be developed, as Figure 10.3 displays. The model serves as a guide for
understanding and describing stress first, and then for resolving stress-related problems.

Figure 10.3: A full model of stress

StressEvents Events

Antecedents Outcomes

Life
Work
Individual Temperament

Physical
Mental
Social/Behavioral

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 323 3/3/16 1:19 PM

Section 10.1 Stress Management

In learning to manage stress, it is critical to recognize that stress can work for us or against
us. There are of course many other stressors such as not having enough time to do all that
you need to do, safety concerns, sociological concerns, lacking purpose in life, having to deal
with addictions and undesirable habits, and even technostress, which is the stress related to
dealing with technology.

A study by Dr. Kenneth Lichstein indicated that while scientists used to believe that the most
harmful stress was the result of major life crises like the death of a spouse, loss of a job, or
divorce, it is now believed that most people eventually recover from these events and that it
is the everyday stress that people are routinely subject to that is causing the most stress and
harm (Lichstein, 1993). Dr. Lichstein says, “Each little frustration that occurs throughout the
day speeds the heart rate, dilates the pupils, and floods the bloodstream with powerful hor-
mones, setting the stage for stress-related problems” (1993, p. 3).

A 2014 Harris Poll performed for the American Psychological Association (Thompson, 2015)
revealed that the top four stressors for adults are (1) money, (2) family responsibilities and
relationships, (3) healthcare concerns, and (4) work. Note that three of these causes would
be in the category of life events.

In terms of money, close to 75% of adults report feeling stressed about money at least some
of the time. Money problems or concerns can have a significant multiplier effect. They can be
a major source of mental, emotional, and physical stress and can particularly cause strain on
relationships.

With regard to family responsibilities and relationships, some find that they can be a major
source of strength in managing stress. Unfortunately, even in the best of families and relation-
ships, keeping up with all of the responsibilities involved can be stressful. What is particularly
stressful, however, is when family or friendship circumstances are strained. This can not only
remove a source of strength in managing stress but also can add more stressors.

Healthcare concerns can come from stress caused by rising healthcare costs and determining
how to pay for and have access to healthcare, and the actual stress of health problems. For
those who struggle with health issues, few things can be more stressful.

Further, when political turmoil threatens one’s way of life, a source of stress arises. Economic
uncertainty can worry a family because of the potential loss of job or home. The 2008 reces-
sion in the United States created a great deal of stress for those “under water” on mortgages
as well as unemployed individuals and underemployed workers. Many also find certain social
trends to be unsettling, especially those that inspire conversation and controversy. Further,
actual elements in the environment, such as a tornado, earthquake, or hurricane can become
sources of stress, either in the worry that one might occur or in those who have experienced
tragedies such as Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy and still cope with the aftereffects.

Antecedents or Causes of Stress: Work Events
The pressures to acquire and keep meaningful work in an uncertain world of economic
upturns and downturns and the constant possibility of downsizing, mergers, acquisitions,
and bankruptcies can be stressful. Many other possible stressors to deal with at work such

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 324 3/3/16 1:19 PM

Section 10.1 Stress Management

as bad management practices, relationships with one’s boss and coworkers, unhealthy work
cultures, poor working conditions, organizational politics, and pressures to do more with less
and work harder and longer create difficult situations. In general, a great deal of stress results
from issues on the job. Three major job-related categories of stress exist. Each contributes to
stress-related problems in unique ways.

Physical stressors include conditions inside the workplace such as excessive heat, excessive
cold, polluted or smoke-filled air, loud noise, cramped work areas, proximity to high-traffic
areas (inside and outside), dangerous work, overtime or long hours, and extensive travel.
Physical stressors may not only affect an individual’s mental state but may also be related to
lower productivity. A construction foreman noted that when the temperature drops below 32
degrees Fahrenheit, a crew performs at 50% of capacity. In other words, a temperature below
freezing doubles the cost of construction.

Social stressors develop between two or more employees of the same rank or of different
ranks. Many types of social stress may be found in everyday work. These include:

• conflicts with peers;
• conflicts with supervisors;
• discrimination;
• sexual harassment;
• hazing;
• group cohesiveness/morale problems; and
• conflicts between groups.

As a group, social stressors can create what has been labeled a toxic workplace.

Job stressors come from the basic demands of the work. Some are related to the worker’s
role (McClean, 1980), others to different forces. Each creates challenging circumstances for
employees. Role conflict takes two forms. The first occurs when a task conflicts with the indi-
vidual’s sense of right and wrong. The second takes place when two assigned tasks conflict
with each other. Role ambiguity means the employee remains unsure about which tasks to
complete or how to complete them. A matter as simple as a new supervisor can generate role
ambiguity as the worker seeks to satisfy the demands of a new boss. Role overload occurs
when the amount of work expected of an employee exceeds what the person can handle.
Layoffs and downsizing often generate role overload for those who remain with the organiza-
tions (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1967; Sutton & Rafaeli, 1987).

Non-role-related job stressors include blocked career progression, otherwise known as
a “dead-end job.” The perception, whether real or imagined, that getting promoted will be
impossible creates a long-term stressor. The glass ceiling, which affects female employees
when they are continually passed over for promotions that are given to men, represents
blocked career progression. Monotonous work can be stressful, especially to those seeking
more meaningful employment. Rates of alcohol and substance abuse are often higher in bor-
ing work settings (Sutton & Rafaeli, 1987).

Job stressors include many things at work including a poorly run organization, difficult lead-
ers, poor working conditions, and low job security. Excessive use of authority over workers

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 325 3/3/16 1:19 PM

Section 10.1 Stress Management

performing simple tasks that are regulated by numerous rules and procedures can become
stressors (Gilboa, Shirom, Fried, & Cooper, 2008).

Occupational stress results from the type of work performed. Table 10.2 provides examples of
low- and high-stress occupations (Frank, 2011; Zupek, 2009).

Table 10.2: Low- and high-stress occupations

High Stress Low Stress

Police officer Civil engineers

Fire fighter Carpenters and masons

Financial aid counselor Industrial machinery mechanics

Sales account manager Operations research analysts

Restaurant assistant manager Massage therapists

Nurse College professors

Based on Frank, 2011; Zupek, 2011.

In summary, these factors cause people stress and lead to decreased productivity and morale
along with rising levels of mistakes, accidents, and healthcare and legal costs. There is a price
to pay for not running organizations well and not taking good care of your people. Leaders
can play key roles in reducing these problems.

Antecedents or Causes of Stress: Individual Temperament
Two types of individuals may be predisposed to stress-related problems, due to their basic
natures. Overachievers and those with the Type A personality factor may experience prob-
lems due to the aggressive nature of their personality. Overachievers are highly competitive
with others and themselves. Such individuals do not achieve true satisfaction from accom-
plishments and constantly move on to the next challenge, leaving them vulnerable to stress-
related problems.

Type A personalities received a great deal of attention in the 1980s. The Type A trait was
originally identified in heart attack victims. One apt description of a true Type A is someone
who tries to do more and more, in less and less time. Type A individuals tend to be impatient
and caustic with those who slow them down. An extreme Type A will be susceptible to a
heart attack, partly due to heightened blood pressure and because constant anger and annoy-
ance produce destructive enzymes associated with an “angry heart” (Friedman & Rosenman,
1974; Ragland & Brand, 1988).

Note that individual temperament stressors may be modified by personal characteristics that
play critical roles in managing stress (Peters, Godaert, Ballieux, & Heijen, 2003). Personal
characteristics can be helpful or harmful. Helpful characteristics are things in one’s character
that reduce stress. For example, a positive thinker eliminates most stress simply by the way he
or she views and handles things. Problems, trials, and challenges are part of life that you have
to learn to deal with. Another helpful characteristic is having a Type B personality (Schulte,

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 326 3/3/16 1:19 PM

ALARM

RESISTANCE

EXHAUSTION

Homeostasis

Stressor
occurs

R
e

s
is

ta
n

c
e

t
o

S
tr

e
s

s

Time

Section 10.1 Stress Management

2015). People with Type B personalities tend to be easygoing, relaxed, patient, optimistic,
positive, and have a long-term perspective of situations.

Harmful characteristics are things that increase stress. For example, a negative thinker with a
negative, cynical, pessimistic attitude increases stress by the way he or she views and handles
things. Negative thinkers can turn almost anything, large or small, into something stressful.
Even when things are going well, they are likely to be stressed, thinking that if things are
going that well, there must be a disaster just around the corner.

In summary, life events, work events, and one’s temperament all represent potential causes of
stress. The term “antecedent” means things that lead to, or precede, what we call stress. Vari-
ous models regarding how to respond have been generated by stress researchers.

How People Deal With Stress

Coping with the antecedents of stress constitutes a continuing challenge for individuals
on and off the job. Two models have been developed to display methods by which people
deal with stress. The first is known as general adaptation syndrome and the second models
responses in terms of on-the-job productivity.

General Adaptation Syndrome
Hans Selye was among the first to identify and model stress and stress coping mechanisms.
The term used to describe his model—“fight or flight”—has received considerable attention.
Figure 10.4 displays the GAS, or general adaptation syndrome, approach.

Figure 10.4: General adaptation syndrome model

Source: Psychlopedia

ALARM

RESISTANCE

EXHAUSTION

Homeostasis

Stressor
occurs

R
e

s
is

ta
n

c
e

t
o

S
tr

e
s

s

Time

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 327 3/3/16 1:19 PM

Section 10.1 Stress Management

As you can see in the figure, an event or stimulus demands attention. The stimulus can be pos-
itive, neutral, or negative. A positive stimulus might be a wave hello from a friend. A negative
stimulus results from being yelled at or through the gesture of an aggressive driver. A neutral
stimulus occurs when the phone rings because you do not yet know what the call will be like.

In each circumstance, a fight response involves dealing with the stimulus directly. Someone
who cuts you off in traffic and then gestures may lead you to “get even” in some way, such as
by passing him later or, at the extreme, phoning the police to warn them a drunk driver is in
front of you. Often, those who typically take the fight approach deal with stress aggressively
by getting upset, getting angry, blowing off steam, taking their stress out on other people, or
by saying and doing things that relieve their stress but increase the stress on those around
them (Fink, 2007). The fight approach brings at least temporary relief to those practicing it
while often doing so at the expense of others. It can be self-deceiving because it may work in
the short run but not without costs to others and oneself, as it develops bad habits for dealing
with stress and can be damaging to one’s reputation.

A flight response means finding a way to avoid the stimulus, such as slowing down and mov-
ing away from the bad driver. The flight approach occurs when people deal with stress pas-
sively by internalizing, covering up, storing up, suppressing, or denying stress (Cooper, 1981).
While the flight approach is less harmful to others, it can cause serious harm to the person
using the flight approach because it may not bring relief. It also runs the risk of developing
dependencies to deal with stress such as overeating, drinking, or collecting resentments, or
of storing it up and then cashing in on some unsuspecting victim.

Neither the fight nor the flight reaction is “good” or “bad” in and of itself. Rather, how one
feels after the response will be the key. When you feel you have successfully adapted to the
stimulus, you have dealt with the stressor in an effective manner. When lingering emotions
or doubts continue to haunt you, the response has created additional stress. Selye points out
that stress cannot and should not be avoided but rather should be managed.

Counselors who employ the fight and flight model try to help the individuals develop posi-
tive coping mechanisms for every type of stimulus. In essence, one can learn to “pick your
fights” and “let go” at other times. Remember that Selye’s work concentrated on the biological
aspects of stress far more than the psychological elements (Selye, 2011). Selye also points
out that people need a certain level of stress to function. The appropriate amount establishes
the mental energy to cope with the challenges of the day. Only when stressors overwhelm the
individual over time does distress emerge (Selye, 1974).

The Stress Curve
A number of studies have shown a curvilinear relationship between stress and work-related
outcomes, as Figure 10.5 shows (Weiman, 1977; Wall, Jackson, Mullarkey, & Parker, 1996;
Franche et al., 2006). This means that we all individually have an optimal level of stress where
stress works for us and serves as a motivator that energizes us, sharpens our perceptions, and
increases our performance.

At low levels of stress below our optimal stress level, we may not be sufficiently alert, moti-
vated, or challenged to perform at our best. At high levels of stress beyond our optimal level,

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 328 3/3/16 1:19 PM

High

L
e
v
e
l
o

f
P

e
rf

o
rm

a
n

c
e

Low

H
ig

h
L

o
w

Low
Stress/Low

Performance

Optimal Stress/
Optimal

Performance

High
Stress/Low

Performance

• Boredom
• Decrease in
Motivation
• Absenteeism
• Apathy

• High Motivation
• High Energy
• Sharp Perception
• Calmness

• Insomnia
• Irritable
• Increased Errors
• Indecisiveness

Level of Stress

Section 10.1 Stress Management

stress can start to have a debilitating effect psychologically, physically, and behaviorally and
can lead to burnout (Halbesleben & Buckley, 2004; Casserley & Megginson, 2009). Burnout is
evidenced by emotional exhaustion, fatigue, and feeling run down; depersonalization of peo-
ple, emotions, and things where we become detached, stoic, flat, and cynical; and a loss of
motivation and hope. The better we are at managing stress, the more stress serves as a moti-
vator up to a certain point. The less effective we are at managing stress, the quicker we reach
the debilitating effects of stress.

Figure 10.5: The stress and productivity curve

High

L
e
v
e
l
o

f
P

e
rf

o
rm

a
n

c
e

Low

H
ig

h
L

o
w

Low
Stress/Low

Performance

Optimal Stress/
Optimal

Performance

High
Stress/Low

Performance

• Boredom
• Decrease in
Motivation
• Absenteeism
• Apathy

• High Motivation
• High Energy
• Sharp Perception
• Calmness

• Insomnia
• Irritable
• Increased Errors
• Indecisiveness

Level of Stress

Symptoms of Distress

Distress, or strain, can be used to differentiate normal, manageable levels of stress from a
circumstance in which the individual becomes overwhelmed and symptoms begin to occur
(Brief, Schuler, & Van Sell, 1981). The symptoms of distress include physical, psychological,
and behavioral outcomes, as Table 10.3 summarizes.

Physical outcomes normally begin with less severe outcomes but then increase over time.
Occasional indigestion might evolve into more dramatic and chronic stomach problems. High
blood pressure over time results in heart attacks and strokes. The same progression often
takes place with psychological outcomes (McClelland & Jemmott, 1980). What begins as an
occasional sleepless night might evolve into chronic insomnia. Behavioral and social manifes-
tations of distress may be less evident to a supervisor, as many take place off the job. Many of
these impact family members and friends as much as people at work.

war82476_10_c10_319-353.indd 329 3/3/16 1:19 PM

Section 10.1 Stress Management

Table 10.3: Potential consequences of stress

Psychological Consequences

Mental Emotional

• Negative, unconstructive, and self-defeating
thoughts

• Distorted perceptions
• Confusion, inability to concentrate
• Loss of perspective on issues and events
• Loss of memory
• Difficulty processing data rationally and thinking

clearly
• Subconscious negative thoughts
• Decreased …

Place your order now for a similar assignment and have exceptional work written by one of our experts, guaranteeing you an A result.

Need an Essay Written?

This sample is available to anyone. If you want a unique paper order it from one of our professional writers.

Get help with your academic paper right away

Quality & Timely Delivery

Free Editing & Plagiarism Check

Security, Privacy & Confidentiality