Final Help need help to properly formulate a final group experiment writing assignment Justin Waltner Article 1: Yoon, Sunkyung, and Jonathan Rottenberg.

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Final Help need help to properly formulate a final group experiment writing assignment Justin Waltner Article 1:

Yoon, Sunkyung, and Jonathan Rottenberg. “Listening to the Blues: An Ecological Momentary

Assessment of Music Choice in Depression.” Emotion, Nov. 2020. DOI.org (Crossref),

https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000911.

In this study, the researchers investigate patterns of emotional music choice and affective

consequences of music choice among individuals with depression. The study tests two

hypotheses. Hypothesis 1: “The depression group would choose sad music more than

nondepressed group”. Hypothesis 2: “Everyday life results would mirror the laboratory context,

with the depression group reporting larger decreases in reported sadness and increases in

reported happiness and relaxedness after listening to their chosen music, compared to

nondepressed groups”. The topic of music choice and affect consequences in people with

depression is important because it may further demonstrate the connection between stimuli and

psyche. This study also mirrors our group’s focus due to establishing a direct connection between

music choice and depression.

The method for this study uses 2 groups, one with 39 female participants who met criteria

for either major depressive disorder or persistent depression disorder, and one with 38 female

participants who did not meet the previous criteria. During the procedure, the ecological

momentary assessment (EMA) was used along with Spotify and Likert Scales to assess

self-reported depressive symptoms. There were 2 happy songs and 2 sad songs used in the

experiment. For the first 3 days of the study, participants would be text reminded at random

times throughout the day to fill out their EMA survey for affect and listen to 5-second song

excerpts from the 4 chosen songs. The surveys continued until day 7, when a final online survey

was completed.

https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000911

The results for both hypotheses were not significant in that the depression group and

control group only showed nominal differences. There was one independent variable for this

between subject’s design, leading to the researchers using an independent samples t-test to

analyze results. People with depression did not choose more sad songs than those nondepressed,

and there were not any noticeable affective consequences for music choice as both groups

reported feeling relaxed and less happy after listening to sad songs. The results were compared to

3 other studies, in which this study was not in accordance with due to not supporting a

depression-related preference for sad songs. Two limitations are notable, one being that only

female university students were sampled leading to generalization of the results to be

inconclusive, and two being the use of preset music choices which certain individuals may not

have liked leading to inconsistent results.

Justin Waltner Article 2:

Yoon, Sunkyung, et al. “Why Do Depressed People Prefer Sad Music?” Emotion, vol. 20, no. 4,

June 2020, pp. 613–24. DOI.org (Crossref), https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000573.

This study serves as a replication process to determine consistency of Millgram et al.’s

(2015) study in which it was determined that depressed individuals prefer stimuli that exacerbate

their current affect, such as sad movies and songs. The current study focuses on musical stimuli

while recreating already studied scenarios and continuing said research. The study consists of 3

hypotheses. Hypothesis 1: “Replicate Millgram et al.’s (2015) key finding that MDD group

status would predict a greater likelihood of choosing sad music excerpts as most preferred”.

Hypothesis 2: “The descriptions and ratings by the MDD group of their preferred music excerpts

would indicate both sadder and less energetic experiences compared to the descriptions and

ratings by the HC group of their chosen music excerpts”. Hypothesis 3: “A significant interaction

https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000573

between groups (the MDD and the HC groups) and energy levels (high and low energetic), such

that the MDD group would show a unique preference for low energetic music excerpts relative to

healthy controls”. It is important to study this topic to better understand the connection between

stimuli and current affect in major depressive disorder. The study compliments the other Yoon &

Rottenberg (2020) study.

The method of this study involves 38 depressed and 38 nondepressed female

undergraduate students. The researchers followed the Millgram et al. (2015) study in a

replication music choice task first. This task involved 6 music excerpts (1 classical and 1 modern

for each emotion category) randomized and participants were asked which song they preferred to

listen to. Participants were also asked why they chose the song and later asked how the song

made them feel on a Likert Scale. The next section of the experiment was called the extension

emotional music selection task (EMST), in which 2 energy levels (high and low) and 4 emotions

(happy, sad, fear, and neutral) were drawn into question. Ten music choices were presented to

participants randomly and later were asked to listen to them again in random order and rate how

they felt on Likert Scales.

To interpret the results of the replication music task, repeated measures ANOVA’s were

conducted. The results were significant in which the major depressive disorder group prefers sad

music to happy music and neutral music to happy music. ANOVA’s were used for the EMST

results also, with significant results as well. Listening to happy music resulted in significantly

more happy feelings in the depressive group, and nominally more happy feelings for the control

group. Listening to sad music resulted in significantly more sad feelings for the depressive group

also. These results confirm the findings of Millgram et al.’s (2015) study. Some limitations were

present in this study. First, focusing on only music decreases generalization to other stimuli.

Second, sampling resulted in all-female participants further decreasing the generalization of the

studies findings.

Kayla Hartland Article #1:

Andersen, I., Thielen, K., Bech, P., Nygaard, E., & Diderichsen, F. (2011). Increasing prevalence

of depression from 2000 to 2006. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 39(8), 857-863.

https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1403494811424611

Andersen, Thielen, Bech, Nygaard, and Diderichsen (2011) conducted a study to

determine if the prevalence of major depressive disorder increased between the years 2000 and

2006. It is important to examine this topic because a rise in depression among a population could

signal that there is a problem within that community that is potentially causing the increase. An

increase in depressed individuals also means there are more people requiring treatment for this

disorder. This would lead to current treatments needing to be more accessible, as well as a

necessity for new treatments to ensure as many people can be successfully treated as possible.

This paper is relevant to our project because it allows us to determine the prevalence of

depression, which would make new treatments, such as the one proposed in our study, necessary

to research.

Andersen et al. (2011) hypothesized that the prevalence rates of depression increased

between the years 2000 and 2006. Their hypothesis is in line with other works the researchers

site within their paper, which also state that the amount of individuals diagnosed with depression

is on the rise. Even though their hypothesis is logical in comparison to others’ findings, it can

still be refuted, as Andersen et al. (2011) conducted their study with a Danish population, which

may be different from the other populations studied.

In order to test their hypothesis, Andersen et al. (2011) randomly obtained a sample of

Danish citizens between the ages of 40 and 50 from a register list maintained by the local

government. All individuals were sent a survey in the mail asking them for information about

various topics, including their physical health, mental health, place of work, and demographic

background (Andersen et al., 2011). In order to assess depression levels, the Major Depression

Inventory (MDI) was included in the surveys sent. Based on the MDI scores, participants were

categorized as either having no symptoms, low symptoms, medium symptoms, or high

symptoms, with medium and high symptoms meeting the criteria for Major Depressive Disorder

(Andersen et al., 2011). This survey was sent once in 2000 and again in 2006 to the same

individuals each time.

Andersen et al. (2011) found that the prevalence of major depressive disorder increased

from 2% for both men and women in 2000 to 4.3% for men and 5.4% for women. The group

with the most substantial change was women in their forties, which experienced a change from

1.9% in 2000 to 5.8% in 2006. It was also found that the median score for the MDI increased,

indicating that even those who didn’t meet the criteria for major depressive disorder experienced

an increase in the number of depressive symptoms they experienced (Andersen et al., 2011).

While the methods used in this study and the conclusions drawn were reasonable, the

external validity of this study is limited by the use of a Danish only population, the age range of

the participants present in the study, and the response rate of those surveyed. The internal

validity of this study is not threatened, as the MDI has been validated at both the clinical and

population levels (Andersen et al., 2011).

Kayla Hartland Article #2:

Erkkila, J., Punkanen, M., Fachner, J., Ala-Ruona, E., Pontio, I., & Tervaniemi, M. (2018).

Individual music therapy for depression: Randomized controlled trial. The British

Journal of Psychiatry,199(2), 132-139. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.110.085431

Erkkila, Punkanen, Fachner, Ala-Ruona, Pontio, and Tervaniemi (2018) conducted a study to

determine if music therapy could work as a treatment for depressed individuals. This is an

important topic to study, as it allows for a new treatment for depression to be created and made

accessible to those who may benefit from it. The study’s evaluation of how music affects the

mental health of depressed individuals makes it relevant to our research project.

Erkkila et al. (2018) hypothesized that music therapy, in combination with standard

depression treatment, would be more effective at treating depression than standard depression

treatment alone. This hypothesis is in line with the results of other studies, which found that

music therapy can increase mood (Erkkila et al., 2018). However, the researchers used a

population of Finnish citizens, which may result in their hypothesis being refuted.

In order to test their hypothesis, Erkkila et al. (2018) recruited individuals from

psychiatric health centers as well as from newspaper ads. They accepted individuals between the

ages of 18 and 50 who were diagnosed with depression and conducted their study at a music

therapy clinic located at the University of Jyväskylä (Erkkila et al., 2018). Individuals were

randomly assigned to either the standard care only group or the standard care and music therapy

group. Standard care for all participants, regardless of group, consisted of receiving medication,

psychotherapy intervention, and or psychiatric counseling (Erkkila et al., 2018). All participants

completed a psychiatric assessment at the beginning of the study, after receiving three months of

music therapy, and three months after the music therapy was completed (Erkkila et al., 2018).

https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.110.085431

Erkkila et al. (2018) found that music therapy improved the depression in participants

significantly better than the participants who did not receive it. While the methods used and

conclusions drawn are mostly reasonable, the sampling method used introduces bias into the

study, as participants were not randomly selected from the population. The use of an entirely

Finnish population may also limit the external validity of the study. The study is also limited by

not having a treatment group that received music therapy only. Since the music therapy group

also received standard care, it is impossible to know if music therapy, on its own, is just as

effective as standard care.

Audrey Briganti Article 1:

Garrido, S., & Schubert, E. (2015). Moody melodies: Do they cheer us up? A study on the effect

of sad music on mood. Psychology of Music, 43(2) 244-261.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735613501938

Garrido and Schubert (2015) attempted to determine how sad music affects our moods.

This area of study is important because it can help individuals understand the effects that sad

music can have on our mood and if it can actually improve it in certain circumstances. This is

relevant to our research project because we are also investigating what kind of effect sad music

has on individuals, however we are looking at it in relation to depression with happy and neutral

music as well. The study had three hypotheses: participants with high scores in Rumination will

have increased or steady scores in depression, mood disturbance, or negative valence in

comparison to their scores before listening to the sad music; participants with high scores in

Absorption or Reflectiveness will have decreased or stable scores in depression or mood

https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735613501938

disturbance after listening compared to before listening to sad music, and those high in

rumination will say that they benefited from the sad music, regardless of the increase in their

depression or mood disturbance levels. The hypotheses are all logical, testable, and refutable.

335 participants were recruited from an Australian university with an age range from

17-51 years old, most having played a musical instrument and having some formal education in

music. Participants were to complete an online survey and data was collected over the course of

two months. They were to find a piece of music that makes them sad, but not to listen to the song

until instructed. A survey containing 91 questions was administered and half of the participants

were given the personality measures before listening to the sad music, and the other half were

given the personality measures after listening (Garrido & Schubert, 2015). The survey contained

questions from the various inventories used to measure rumination and reflectiveness,

neuroticism and openness to experience, absorption, and mood. After the personality measures

and listening to the sad music, the participants were to provide a link of the piece of music that

makes them happy, which they listened to in the final section of the survey. Mood scores were

taken prior to listening to the sad music, after listening to the sad music, and after listening to the

happy music (Garrido & Schubert, 2015). Participants were able to take the survey at a time and

location of their choosing, which could pose problems with internal validity as everyone would

take it at different times and locations, which could lead to confounding environmental variables.

Garrido and Schubert (2015) tested to ensure that there were no order effects and results

revealed that there was no significant difference in order and it did not influence responses. The

results indicate significant negative correlations between Rumination and Neuroticism with

baseline tension, depression scores, and valence scores, insinuating that high scorers in these

traits were in a more negative mood than other participants at the start of the experiment (Garrido

& Schubert, 2015). Garrido and Schubert (2015) conducted a between-within subjects ANOVA

to discover the impact of the happy and sad music on Depression scores and found that in regard

to depression scores, time (baseline, post-sad music, and post-happy music scores on

Depression) had a significant main effect on depression as well as a significant interaction

between time and rumination group. Time also had a significant main effect on mood disturbance

when the impact of the happy and sad music were tested on the Mood Disturbance Index scores,

and another significant interaction between time and rumination group occurred, which suggests

that high ruminators experienced different effects compared to low ruminators (Garrido &

Schubert, 2015). A follow-up test was conducted and found that depression scores did in fact

increase after listening to sad music, but rumination group did not seem to be a significant factor

in the score changes, as both high and low ruminators both experienced increases in depression

scores following the sad music. After listening to the happy music towards the end of the study,

depression scores did decrease for all participants, but high ruminators experienced a more

significant drop than low ruminators. The results seem to be quite reasonable, but the fact that

the study only selected students from a single Australian university could diminish its external

validity.

Audrey Briganti Article 2:

McCraty, R., Barrios-Choplin, B., Atkinson, M., & Tomasino, D. (1998). The effects of different

types of music on mood, tension, and mental clarity. Alternative therapies in health and

medicine, 4(1), 75-84

In this study, McCraty, Barrios-Choplin, Atkinson, and Tomasino (1998) sought to

discover how four different types of music affect individuals and specifically how a genre

entitled designer music affects mood, tension, and mental clarity. This is an important area to

study as it can determine whether certain music can actually affect one’s mood. If it is found that

it does, it may provide a way for individuals to regulate their moods and may even help with

mental illnesses such as anxiety or depression. This study is relevant to our project because it

examines if and how different music affects an individual, which is essentially what our project

is on.

McCraty et al. (1998) developed four separate hypotheses. The first was that all four

types of music used in the study- New Age, classical, grunge rock, and designer- would affect

feelings. The second was that grunge rock would produce more feelings of negativity, and the

third was that designer music will do the opposite and promote positive feelings and reduce

tension and negative feelings. The final hypothesis was that in comparison to adults, teenagers

would not be as positively affected by classical music nor as negatively affected by grunge rock

music. The hypotheses are all logical, refutable, and testable.

To test their hypotheses, McCraty et al. (1998) recruited adult subjects from seven church

study groups and teenagers from a local summer camp, with the age range of the entire sample

being 12-76 years old. Listening sessions were organized and conducted at a research center and

in the homes or church facilities for the adults from the church study groups. Coordinators were

volunteers from each church group and were not included in the study analysis. In these listening

sessions, participants were to first complete Part One of a questionnaire that was created

specifically for this study and was handed out by the coordinators. Once complete, they were

told that they were going to listen to 15 minutes of music. Neither the coordinators nor the

participants knew the aim of the study. Coordinators were to give specific instructions before

playing the music and once the music was over, the participants were told to complete Part Two

of the questionnaire. The researchers used pieces by Mozart for the classical music genre, four

songs by Pearl Jam for the grunge rock genre, four songs from Enya, an Irish singer, for the New

Age genre, and five pieces from an instrumental composition entitled Speed of Balance for the

designer genre (McCraty et al., 1998). Their methods seemed reasonable, and the researchers

controlled for many potential confounding variables by not allowing participants or coordinators

to know the true aim of the study and randomly ordering the questions on the questionnaire as

well as reversing valences to avoid response set bias (McCraty et al., 1998).

McCraty et al. (1998) discovered that the first hypothesis was supported, and music did

result in changes in feelings, such as a large reduction in tension after the classical genre, and an

increase in relaxation and a decrease in hostility and tension after the New Age genre.

Hypothesis two was supported as well, shown by increases in negative feelings such as hostility

and tension and reductions in relaxation and mental clarity. Increases in relaxation and mental

clarity and decreases in hostility, sadness, and tension after listening to the designer music

supported the third hypothesis. The fourth and final hypothesis was only partially supported with

significant differences in the classical music category, the New Age category, and the grunge

rock category. While the age range was quite broad, the participants were largely selected from

the west coast and from church groups, so the external validity may not be the strongest.

Cindy Monroy Article 1:

Nikoulina, A. I., Arcurio, L. R., Finn, P. R., & James, T. W. (2019, May 15).

Risky drinking decisions: The influence of party music and alcohol abuse in Young Adult

Women. Alcohol. Retrieved December 6, 2021, from

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0741832918300922.

In this study by Nikoulina, Arcurio, Finn, and James, an experiment was conducted to

analyze the effects party music has on drinking decisions in young adult women. The experiment

hypothesizes that listening to party music while making decisions increases the likelihood of

making risky decisions (such as eating at a low-rated restaurant), regardless of alcohol abuse

history, while listening to personal music did not (Nikoulina, Arcurio, Finn, & James, 2019.)

This is an important study area because it displays how music can contribute to adverse

outcomes. In our group project, we are examining to see if music can help improve one’s

depression symptoms in positive ways. This experiment is relevant to our project because it

shows how listening to certain types of music also has the potential to lead to opposite outcomes

in mood/behavior.

To assess the impact music may have on risky drinking decisions, the experimenters

recruited two groups of women ages 18- 28 from a Midwestern University and bars in the area.

One group had a history of alcohol abuse, while the other did not. The Alcohol Use Disorders

Test (AUDIT) was used to identify those who consume excessive and harmful amounts of

alcohol. This experiment consisted of two assessments, a behavioral test session, and an

interview and questionnaire session. They were then instructed to complete a risky

decision-making task followed by a cue-rating task through a computer program. Both groups

were required to make hypothetical decisions on whether to indulge in alcohol or eat food while

their favorite party music or home music was playing.

The results showed an increased decision likelihood for alcohol/ food was more prevalent

in the party music condition. It notes that the effect it had on alcohol consumption was

significantly higher as well. It showed that home music had no effect on the decision likelihood

when it came to alcohol consumption and choices in food. I am pretty confident in these results

as it was compared to another study where they tested to see if listening to preferred music made

gambling seem more appealing, and it was found that there is a correlation. One limitation to this

study is that these were hypothetical scenarios given to the participants. Perhaps testing this

hypothesis through real-life scenarios would produce different results.

Cindy Monroy Article 2:

Duygu, K., Sule, A.E., (2021, May-August). The Effect of Music Therapy on The Sense of

Loneliness of Elderly Living in Nursing Home. Retrieved December 6, 2021, from

http://www.internationaljournalofcaringsciences.org/docs/14_kurt_original_14_2.pdf.

In this study by Duygu and Sule (2021), they conduct an experiment to determine the

effects music can have on the feeling of loneliness in the elderly living in a nursing home. This

area of study is important because it shows how music therapy can be used to help improve a

feeling one may experience if they are depressed. This relates to our group project because we

are testing to see what effects happy, sad, and neutral music can have on someone who is

depressed. The study hypothesized that “Music therapy has an effect on the sense of loneliness of

the elderly who stay in the nursing home” (Duygu, Sule, 2021.) The experimenters make note

that oftentimes the elderly experience high levels of loneliness due to having lost loved ones or

being away from their families.

They conducted the experiment in a nursing home located in Turkey using a

pre-test/post-test model. It consisted of 104 elderly individuals and sampled 38. Nineteen of

them received an intervention, and 19 of them participated in the control group. The UCLA

Loneliness scale was used in conjunction with interview forms to determine levels of loneliness

in each participant as a pre-test. The intervention group was then required to listen to

instrumental music every day for 30 minutes for ten days in the morning and evening. At the end

of each day, the UCLA Loneliness Scale was administered again to both intervention and control

groups, and this was used as a post-test. This method is reasonable because it clearly accounts for

how participants feel before the experiment and after. I do not see any obvious threats to its

internal validity.

The results concluded that the individuals who were part of the control group did not

show any difference in loneliness levels. The results for the individals who participated in the

intervention group show a statistically significant difference in their scores on the UCLA

Loneliness scale compared to when they first started. The data does support the hypothesis in

that music therapy does in fact aid in reducing feelings of loneliness in elederly individuals. The

study notes, providing the use of music therapy can be used as a complimentary and alternative

medicine method” (Duygu, Sule, 2021.) I am confident in the findings of this experiment.

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