Current event 2 You will prepare a short paper about a current news article/storyrelating to the juvenile justice system. The story must be taken from the

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Current event 2 You will prepare a short paper about a current news article/storyrelating to the juvenile justice system. The story must be taken from the news on the week that the student is submitting it. The paper should be 2 pages in length, double-spaced. The paper must be in your own words. It must be written in narrative form.Proper grammar and punctuation is also required.

Directions: Find an article either in the newspaper or online from a reputable national or local news source. Read the article and fill out the statements or answer the questions below. You may not use articles from entertainment/gossip sources. Because this is a juvenile justice current events assignment you are to choose an article that is no more than a week old from when the assignment is given. Be sure to check the rubric for this assignment to complete all the requirements for this assignment. You must connect the article with at least two things that you have learned from the class. Provide a full APA style citation to the article at the end. 

For your response: 

Summarize the article. Do not simply copy a news event. Explain the event in your own words. (1 paragraph)

Incorporate all the following questions into your response: 

A. Express your opinion about the information in the article. B. Explain how the articles ties in to material you have learnt in classC. Is what you know about the juvenile justice system accurately represented in this article? Explain.D. What questions does this raise for you? Policing and juveniles

Chapter 7

In this chapter we will first take a look at the history of police and juvenile relations, the evolution of community policing, legal aspects of policing as related to juveniles, and police discretion,.

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Role of police

Arresting youth

Processing delinquents and status offenders

Preventing juvenile delinquency

Protecting juveniles from victimization

History

19th century: increase in number of unemployed and homeless youths

Wickersham Commission, IACP advocated police reform

Development of delinquency control squads

Vollmer (Berkeley): prevention programs and juvenile aid bureaus, first organized special police services for youths

Iacp: Internation association for chiefs of police

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History

1960s: increased tension between police and citizens

US Supreme Court ruled against police authority in a number of cases restricting discretion

Civil unrest; police seen as oppressors

Increase in crime

Development of role in community awareness and crime prevention

Recognized need for specialized juvenile programs by the 1980s

Prevention: Police Athletic League

Law enforcement: Juvenile Court, school policing

Child abuse, domestic violence, homelessness

Police roles

Juvenile officers

Operate within a police dept.

Former patrol officers who are sometimes provided specialized training in

dealing with juveniles

Majority of the encounters end in informal outcomes, and are for minor offenses

Role of peacekeepers and crime preventers

Role conflict between law enforcement role and rehabilitation role

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Controlling violent crime

Problem-oriented policing

Focusing on problems underlying juvenile delinquency

Address problems of community disorganization

Directed patrols in hot spots

Community Policing

Emphasize on reducing fear, organizing the community, and maintaining order

The goal of police to help youth fits with this model

Advantages

Gives police more immediate information of criminal activity

Engage in proactive crime prevention

Increases police accountability to the public

Improves police public relationships

6

Police practices, the law, and juveniles

Police and the law: Arrests

Law of arrest the same for adults and juveniles

Probable cause

Misdemeanor: police must observe crime

Felony: probable cause

Police have broader authority to take juveniles into custody, generally

Otherwise must have a warrant

Police can “arrest” youths for status offenses such as truancy, running away and alcohol use

Loco parentis (in place of parents)

Once arrested, formal safeguards of the 4th and 5th amendment attach

4th amendment standards of search and seizure have been determined to apply to juveniles

Police and the law: search and seizure

Same stop and frisk rule as for adults

Search after a legal arrest in the immediate area of the subject’s control

For many young people, stops are a familiar and frequent experience and also perceived to be unjustified and unfair.

44 percent of young people surveyed indicated they had been stopped repeatedly—9 times or more.

Less than a third—29 percent—reported ever being informed of the reason for a stop

Frisks, searches, threats, and use of force are common.

71 percent of young people surveyed reported being frisked at least once, and 64 percent said they had been searched.

45 percent reported encountering an officer who threatened them, and 46 percent said they had experienced physical force at the hands of an officer.

One out of four said they were involved in a stop in which the officer displayed his or her weapon.

Impact of stop and frisk: https:// www.nytimes.com/2012/06/12/opinion/the-scars-of-stop-and-frisk.html

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Vera institute report

Trust in law enforcement and willingness to cooperate with police is alarmingly low.

88 percent of young people surveyed believe that residents of their neighborhood do not trust the police.

Only four in 10 respondents said they would be comfortable seeking help from police if in trouble.

Only one in four respondents would report someone whom they believe had committed a crime.

Young people who have been stopped more often in the past are less willing to report crimes, even when they themselves are the victims.

Each additional stop in the span of a year is associated with an eight percent drop in the person’s likelihood of reporting a violent crime he or she might experience in the future.

Half of all young people surveyed had been the victim of a crime, including 37 percent who had been the victim of a violent crime

Custodial interrogation

Miranda v Arizona put limits on police interrogations

In re Gault the Supreme Court held that Miranda applies to juveniles as well

In 2011 the Supreme Court ruled that age is a factor and police need to take care when questioning children in custody

Does a youth have the maturity to waive their Miranda rights?

Feld (2006) found that 80% of juveniles waive Miranda

Police use suggestive questioning with youth; minimized Miranda warnings

Supreme Court examined the ways in which Miranda was delivered and have concluded that even if “language was slightly different” the juvenile should get the gist of it

Juvenile false confessions: https://www.crimefreefuture.com/resources-defending-children-court/due-process /

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Police discretion

When should an officer arrest a youth? When should a summons be issued? When should they let them go with a warning?

Use discretion to choose an appropriate course of actions; give flexibility

Can result in discrimination

Leads to different results in similar situations

Majority of encounters with police don’t result in arrest

Study in 200 found that only 13% of encounters with police result in a juvenile arrest

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Bias and police discretion

Racial bias

https:// www.npr.org/2017/09/27/551864016/fewer-youths-incarcerated-but-gap-between-blacks-and-whites-worsens

Police turn to formal interventions more often with Black youth

Broken windows policing, and stop and frisk contribute to unfair treatment of African Americans

President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing

Law enforcement needs to adopt procedural justice as a guiding principle

Police agencies need to develop “clear and comprehensive” polices on use of force

Police agencies need to emphasize community policing

13

New directions: law enforcement

Field interrogations

Foot patrol and neighborhood storefront police stations

Community mobilization programs (block watch, weed and seed, Neighborhood Watch, neighborhood cleanups, etc)

Mentoring

Curfews

Afterschool programs

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