Content Area Help Hello, The post must to be 250 to 300 words; APA; 12 font; times new roman; answer the questions that are after the quote; use only reso

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Hello,

The post must to be 250 to 300 words; APA; 12 font; times new roman; answer the questions that are after the quote; use only resources provided below.

Quote: “Teachers guide students’ reading by (1) modeling how to read, think, and learn with texts; and (2) scaffolding instruction in the use of comprehension strategies that allow students to learn with text in meaningful ways.”

Questions:

What does this quote mean to you? 

Provide examples from readings to support your answers. 

How do you relate your own learning experiences -both positive and negative- to this?

Links for book and videos:  

https://reader.yuzu.com/books/9780135761229 (chapter 7)

https://youtu.be/6W3Yk9gMrqU 

https://youtu.be/p1LcA59gZRo

Thanks

Content Area Reading: Literacy and Learning Across the Curriculum

Thirteenth Edition

Chapter 7

Guiding Reading Comprehension

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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1

Organizing Principle

Teachers guide students’ reading by

modeling how to read, think, and learn with texts; and

scaffolding instruction in the use of comprehension strategies that allow students to learn with text in meaningful ways.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

2

Frame of Mind (1 of 2)

How do think-alouds, reciprocal teaching, Q A Rs, and Q t A s model reading/thinking/learning strategies for students as they interact with texts in a discipline?

Describe the procedures associated with each of these literacy-related instructional strategies: K W L, K W H L, directed reading-thinking activity (D R-T A), Guided Reading Procedure (G R P), Intra-Act, and discussion web. How do these instructional strategies support thinking and learning with text? Which of these strategies may be particularly useful when adapted to your content area?

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Frame of Mind (2 of 2)

Why and when should teachers use reading guides?

How can you engage your students in close reading of texts within your discipline?

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Chapter Overview and Learning Outcomes

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

7.1 Describe the ways in which teachers can model comprehension strategies and explain how each supports students’ comprehension.

7.2 Explain how each of the strategies guide comprehension as students interact with text, from before reading support to after reading reflection.

7.3 Describe how each of the reading guides scaffolds students’ understanding during reading.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Key Terms

Applied Comprehension

Directed reading-thinking activity (D R-T A)

Discussion web

Guided Reading Procedure (G R P)

Interpretive Comprehension

Intra-Act

K W L/K W H L

Literal Comprehension

Modeling

Q A R

Q t A

Reciprocal teaching

Scaffolding

Semantic map

Think-aloud

Three-level comprehension guide

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Modeling Comprehension Strategies

Think-alouds

Reciprocal teaching

Question-answer relationships (Q A Rs)

Questioning the author (Q t A)

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Think-Aloud Steps

Select a passage that contains points of difficulty, ambiguities, contradictions, or unknown words

Have students listen as you model thinking aloud.

Have students practice with partners.

Have students practice independently.

Encourage students to transfer the process to other reading.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Think-Aloud Points

Develop hypotheses by making predictions.

Develop images.

Share analogies.

Monitor comprehension.

Regulate comprehension.

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Reciprocal Teaching Lessons (1 of 2)

Phase 1

Find text selections that demonstrate comprehension activities.

Generate appropriate questions.

Generate predictions about each selection.

Locate summarizing sentences and develop summaries for each selection.

Note difficult vocabulary and concepts.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reciprocal Teaching Lessons (2 of 2)

Phase 2

Make decisions about which comprehension strategies to teach based on student needs.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Question-Answer Relationships (Q A Rs)

Answers can be found:

In the text: Right there

In the text: Think and search

In your head: Author and you

In your head: On your own

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Steps to Follow for Teaching Q A Rs

Introduce the concept of Q A Rs.

Assign students short passages.

Continue the second day by practicing with short passages.

Review briefly on the third day.

Apply the Q A R strategy to actual content area assignments.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Planning a Q t A Lesson

Identify major understandings and potential problems with a text prior to its use.

Segment the text into logical stopping points for discussion.

Develop questions, or queries, that model and demonstrate how to “question the author.”

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Guiding the Q t A Discussion

Marking

Turning Back

Revoicing

Modeling

Annotating

Recapping

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Instructional Strategies

K W L

Discussion Webs

Guided Reading Procedure (G R P)

Intra-Act

Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (D R-T A)

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

K W L

Begins with what students Know about a topic

Moves to what students Want to know as they generate questions

Leads to a record of what students Learn as a result of the strategy

Follow-up includes discussion, graphic organizers, and summary writing.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Procedure for K W L (1 of 2)

Introduce the K W L strategy in conjunction with a new topic or text selection.

Identify what students think they know about the topic.

Generate a list of student questions.

Anticipate the organization and structure of ideas that the author is likely to use in the text selection.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Procedure for K W L (2 of 2)

Read the text selection to answer the questions.

Engage students in follow-up activities to clarify and extend learning.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Discussion Webs

Encourages students to engage the text and each other in discussion by creating a framework.

Uses cooperative learning principles

Uses a graphic display to scaffold students’ thinking about the ideas they want to contribute

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Procedure for Discussion Webs (1 of 2)

Prepare your students for reading by activating prior knowledge, raising questions, and making predictions about the text.

Assign students to read the selection and then introduce the discussion web by having them work in pairs to generate pro and con responses to the question.

Combine partners into groups of four to compare responses, work toward consensus, and reach a conclusion as a group.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Procedure for Discussion Webs (2 of 2)

Give each group three minutes to decide which of all the reasons given best supports the group’s conclusion.

Have your students follow up the whole-class discussion by individually writing their responses to the discussion web question.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Guided Reading Procedure (G R P)

Emphasizes close reading

Requires students to gather information and organize it

Places a premium on accuracy

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Procedure for Guided Reading Procedure (G R P) (1 of 2)

Prepare students for reading.

Assign a reading selection.

As students finish reading, have them turn books face down.

Help students recognize that there is much that they have not remembered or have represented incorrectly.

Redirect students to their books and review the selection to correct inconsistencies and add further information.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Procedure for Guided Reading Procedure (G R P) (2 of 2)

Organize recorded remembrances into some kind of an outline.

Extend questioning to stimulate an analysis of the material and a synthesis of the ideas with previous learning.

Provide immediate feedback, such as a short quiz, as a reinforcement of short-term memory.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Intra-Act

Lays groundwork for reflective discussion

Students engage in a process of valuing as they reflect on what they’ve read.

Students respond actively to a text with thoughts and feelings.

Requires small groups

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Procedure for Intra-Act

Comprehension

Create Intra-Act teams

Relating

Valuation

Reflection

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (D R-T A)

Fosters critical awareness and thinking via prediction, verification, interpretation, and judgment

Uses open-ended questions

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Procedure for Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (D R-T A)

Begin with the title or a quick survey of the material. Ask questions such as “What do you think this will be about?” and “Why do you think so?”

Ask students to read silently to a predetermined logical stopping point.

Repeat open-ended questions.

Continue silent reading to another suitable point.

Continue the procedure until the end of the material is reached.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Reading Guides

Three levels of comprehension

Literal (read the lines)

Interpretive (between the lines)

Applied (beyond the lines)

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Three-Level Comprehension Guides

Three-Level Comprehension Guides provide the framework in which students can interact with difficult texts at different levels of comprehension.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Constructing Three-Level Comprehension Guides

Begin at the Interpretive level.

Search for the propositions and information needed to support the selected inferences.

Decide whether you want to add distractors to the first two levels.

Develop statements for the Applied level.

Be flexible and adaptive.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

Copyright © 2021, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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