Consider The Research Paper You Submitted ? Consider the research paper you submitted in Module 12. Assume you are interested in publishing an article base

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Consider The Research Paper You Submitted ? Consider the research paper you submitted in Module 12. Assume you are interested in publishing an article based on the research, and discuss which publications or conferences you might consider for submission. Locate two potential venues, and discuss why you chose these journals or conferences.

Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories (which require supporting citations) in your initial response along with at least three scholarly,peer-reviewed journal articles. 10

Patient Safety Culture in hospitals.

Student’s Name
Instructor’s name.
Institutional Affiliation
September 24, 2021.

Patient Safety Culture in hospitals.


Patient safety is an issue of global public health concern. It refers to preventing patients from harm by implementing a care system that contains errors and learns from medical errors to build a safety culture involving healthcare workers, patients, and healthcare organizations. The safety of patients is critical in care quality. Many patients worldwide have suffered injuries, disabilities, and death due to medical errors or unsafe care. Patient safety culture can be defined as healthcare organizations’ values about what is essential and how to operate to protect patients. To achieve a safe culture, organizations and their members must understand the values, norms, and beliefs about essential and attitudes and behaviors related to patient safety (Ali et al., 2018).
To achieve a culture of safety, organizations should emphasize addressing disparities in the quality of care because the current challenges may worsen the efforts to narrow the gap. The key issues in establishing and providing accessible, responsive, and effective health systems are quality and safety. Poor quality and unsafe patient care increase mortality and morbidity rates throughout the world. About 75% of the healthcare delivery gaps are preventable, and approximately 10% of inpatient admission result from preventable patient harm (Amiri et al., 2018).
Patient safety cultures with strong collaboration and leadership drive and prioritize safety (Wu et al., 2019). Strong leadership and commitment from manger are essential because their attitudes and actions influence the wider workforce’s behaviors, perceptions, and attitudes. The other important aspects of patient safety culture include; effective communication, mutual trust, shared views on the importance of patient safety, engaging the healthcare workforce, acknowledging mistakes, and having a system that recognizes, responds, and gives feedback on adverse events (Alquwez et al., 2018). Patient safety culture is influenced by burnouts, hospital characteristics, communication, position, work area, commitment to the patient safety program, leadership, and patient safety resources and management.

Thesis statement.

Patient safety culture focuses on safety in health care by emphasizing the prevention, reporting, and investigation of medical errors that may cause patients’ adverse effects, thus reducing harm by implementing necessary measures. Several factors are affecting the culture of patient safety in hospitals. This paper highlights patient safety culture and the factors affecting patient safety culture in public hospitals.


Patient safety culture encompasses shared values and beliefs about healthcare delivery system, training and education of healthcare workers on patient safety culture, commitment from leaders and managers, open commutation concerning medical errors and patient injury, a system of detecting and investigating near misses and medical errors, and establishment of a just culture. The organization’s leadership should be committed to developing and implement a culture of safety. However, developing and implementing a culture of safety should not be made at the expense of reducing the sense of professional responsibility. Healthcare workers should be adequately prepared to perform their duties. They should be aware of their environment to eliminate distractions. In addition, they should be vigilant in detecting hazardous situations to prevent the occurrence of such cases.
Patient safety culture consists of psychological, behavioral, and organizational components. The psychological component is what individuals think, including their opinions, values, attitudes, and beliefs. A safety culture requires that employees should be trained on what safety entails. Safety should always be the first goal in every health care organization. Most organizations achieve patient safety by conducting safety meetings and training healthcare workers. To achieve a sustained improvement in safety, culture-specific measures, such as executive work rounds, teamwork training, and creating safety teams should be implemented. Other methods include; structured response and rapid response teams, which can effectively eliminate rigid unsafe culture in healthcare.

Factors influencing patient safety culture.


Different factors, including ineffective teamwork, psychological and physical overload of health professionals, and unsuccessful organizational processes, influence a patient safety culture. Burnout impairs healthcare processes, teamwork, and personal characteristics. Patient safety is one of the critical challenges in healthcare today, and in many cases, it depends on healthcare professionals because they are responsible for providing safe and quality care. To achieve safety in healthcare, healthcare professionals should be trained since most safety issues arise from the psychological health of care providers, poor communication, training, and lack of teamwork. Healthcare workers should be trained on clinical practice guidelines, better working conditions, adverse events and new technologies used, infection prevention guidelines should be provided, and emotional and psychological support offered to health professionals.
Healthcare professionals’ wellbeing, anxiety, depression, and burnout determine the patient-provider relationship and the quality of care provided: poor wellbeing and high levels of burnout result in poor patient care and outcomes. Burnout is directly related to workplace conditions and is caused by occupational stress mainly arising from the interaction with other people. Concerning the expected risks, healthcare professionals get exhausted during working hours, and therefore they may fail to perform to standards, thus compromising safety and quality of health.
Patient safety permeates cuts across individual, social, and organizational factors which depend on human resources. Burnout depends on characteristics such as human interaction and physical, organizational factors. Adverse events are complications that arise from patient care, caused by errors that are not associated with the natural history of the disease. Complications occurring as a result of medical errors are referred to as avoidable adverse events.
Patient safety culture is essential in reducing and preventing errors. According to the Joint Commission, safety culture is a collection of values, beliefs, attitudes, competencies, perceptions, and patterns of the behavior determining the organization’s commitment to patient safety and quality of care. A patient safety culture encourages employees to report near misses and medical errors. Leaders need to implement and support an environment where employees can speak up to learn from unsafe conditions, adverse events, and close calls. Leaders can achieve a patient safety culture by encouraging a non-punitive and transparent approach to reporting. A just culture that minimizes individual blame and focuses on reducing faults causing adverse events improves patient safety culture.


Effective communication is essential when engaging and providing care for patients. Communication is paramount for better decision-making and the successful provision of patient-centered care. Effective communication is essential throughout the interaction between the provider and the patient as it ensures that patients and families take part and make informed decisions concerning their health. Communication is important during diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and follow-up. Poor communication can expose patients to harm. During a diagnosis process in the emergency department, 23% of the patients were not informed about their health. A quarter of them did not understand the procedure to follow after leaving the emergency department. Lack of such communication causes harmful consequences and adverse events.
Effective communication and teamwork promote patient safety culture. Constant communication between leaders and healthcare workers improves patient safety culture. Breakdown in communication between the healthcare provider and the patient, caregiver, or family contributes to errors and adverse events. Timely communication of patient progress and discharge summaries are some of the patient safety culture components. Poor communication from healthcare provides the leading cause of medical errors. Inadequate communication contributes to diagnosis-related malpractice claims.


Effective leadership is important in healthcare to foster a culture of patient safety (Carvalho et al., 2017). Healthcare organization leaders encourage others to speak up, communicate issues, and increase safety by promoting an environment of psychological safety. Leaders can make timely decisions to protect patients and healthcare workers. Eventually, leaders promoting a positive organizational climate contribute to employee job satisfaction, reduced medical errors, decreased burnout, and generally to an improved culture of safety. Influential leaders use a solid vision to inculcate a sense of purpose and set the organization’s culture. Leadership determines the organizational priorities and allocates resources toward vital safety initiatives.
Leaders must develop and implement strategies that eliminate intimidating behaviors in the organization (Gutberg & Berta, 2017). Tolerating unprofessional conduct within the organization undermines patient safety. Lack of a system that openly addresses such behaviors allows such employees to act unprofessionally, and that kind of culture can be passed to new employees. Timely action against such behaviors improves staff retention and satisfaction, improves patient safety, enhances reputation, risk-management experience, and creates a better work environment.

Psychological Safety.

Psychological safety believes that an individual will not be punished for speaking up or making an error. Psychological safety is an essential component of patent safety culture and is associated with burnout and patient safety. It encourages creativity, transparency, speaking up, and courage when giving your opinion. A psychologically safe environment allows providers to discuss matters related to work-life balance, which improves their wellbeing. To create psychological safety, leaders should foster an environment where employees feel safe communicating issues to patient care. Influential leaders develop a sustainable communication and feedback mechanism in the organization (Farokhzadian et al., 2018). This increases the ability to react constructively to patient problems and accept feedback from care providers. It will be challenging to achieve a patient safety culture without open communication because healthcare workers may fear reporting near misses and errors, thus compromising patient safety.

Collaborative Teamwork

Teamwork among employees is essential for a patient safety culture (Danielsson et al., 2017). Leaders should nurture the skills of their employees to promote better patient care. Leaders should also demonstrate a positive attitude which can be contagious over time. If leaders work together with healthcare workers, workers are empowered to provide high-quality safety. Sharing data metrics is an example of collaborative teamwork. Healthcare workers are more likely to comply with the demands of workplace objects when they are well informed of why they should do it (Smith et al., 2017). Collaborative partnership and effective communication are vital in aligning with a common goal.


Enhanced patient safety can only be achieved through adopting a culture of safety. Patient safety culture is an integrated pattern of organizational and individual behavior, based on shared values and beliefs, that constantly seeks to minimize patient harm resulting from care delivery processes. Patient safety should be a critical concern for all healthcare organizations and healthcare workers. It is influenced by communication, the wellbeing of healthcare workers, teamwork, availability of resources, and working environment. Patient safety culture can be referred to as a just culture because it entails providing care with fairness. The two essential strategies for patient safety care are; a system within which care providers report near misses and injuries without blame, relation, or humiliation, and an open and comprehensive reporting creating an environment that is reliable in avoiding injuries and near misses (Lawati et al., 2018).


Ali, H., Ibrahem, S. Z., Al Mudaf, B., Al Fadalah, T., Jamal, D., & El-Jardali, F. (2018). Baseline assessment of patient safety culture in public hospitals in Kuwait. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1).

Alquwez, N., Cruz, J. P., Almoghairi, A. M., Al-otaibi, R. S., Almutairi, K. O., Alicante, J. G., & Colet, P. C. (2018). Nurses’ perceptions of patient safety culture in three hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 50(4), 422-431.

Amiri, M., Khademian, Z., & Nikandish, R. (2018). The effect of nurse empowerment educational program on patient safety culture: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Medical Education, 18(1).

Carvalho, R. E., Arruda, L. P., Nascimento, N. K., Sampaio, R. L., Cavalcante, M. L., & Costa, A. C. (2017). Assessment of the culture of safety in public hospitals in Brazil. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 25(0).

Danielsson, M., Nilsen, P., Rutberg, H., & Årestedt, K. (2017). A national study of patient safety culture in hospitals in Sweden. Journal of Patient Safety, 15(4), 328-333.

Farokhzadian, J., Dehghan Nayeri, N., & Borhani, F. (2018). The long way ahead to achieve an effective patient safety culture: Challenges perceived by nurses. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1).

Gutberg, J., & Berta, W. (2017). Understanding middle managers’ influence in implementing patient safety culture. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1).

Lawati, M. H., Dennis, S., Short, S. D., & Abdulhadi, N. N. (2018). Patient safety and safety culture in primary health care: A systematic review. BMC Family Practice, 19(1).

Smith, S. A., Yount, N., & Sorra, J. (2017). Exploring relationships between hospital patient safety culture and consumer reports safety scores. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1).

Wu, C., Wu, H., Lee, Y., & Huang, C. (2019). What attributes determine overall satisfaction in patient safety culture? An empirical study of the perceptions of hospital staff in Taiwan. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 49(1), 20180713.

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