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Compare And Contrast Christianity And Islam Length: 500-750 words, double spaced Do not use external sources Chapter 9 Christianity Copyright © 2017, 2

Compare And Contrast Christianity And Islam Length: 500-750 words, double spaced

Do not use external sources Chapter 9
Christianity

Copyright © 2017, 2

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Compare And Contrast Christianity And Islam Length: 500-750 words, double spaced

Do not use external sources Chapter 9
Christianity

Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Living Religions
Tenth Edition

1

Learning Objectives (1 of 3)
9.1 Discuss the four gospels on which Christian beliefs about the life and teachings of Jesus are founded.
9.2 Outline the major events in the life of Jesus as described in the gospels.
9.3 Discuss the significance of Paul in the early Christian Church.
9.4 Summarize the division between the Eastern and Western Churches in the Middle Ages.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 3)
9.5 Identify the major reforms of the Protestant and Roman Catholic Reformations.
9.6 Describe the distinctive features of Orthodox spirituality.
9.7 Summarize the central beliefs in contemporary Christianity.

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Learning Objectives (3 of 3)
9.8 Define “sacrament” and outline the seven sacraments observed by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.
9.9 Differentiate between evangelicalism and Spirit-oriented movements.

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David Vandiver Quote

“What did it mean to ‘love my neighbor as myself’?”

David Vandiver

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David Vandiver, interviewed 1998, 2011.
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The Christian Bible (1 of 2)
On which four gospels are Christian beliefs about the life and teachings of Jesus founded?
Roman rule inspired apocalyptic texts that predicted an imminent end of the present age
Hebrew Bible is the Christian Old Testament
27 books of New Testament written after Jesus’ earthly mission
Some Bibles include Apocrypha or Deuterocanonical books: noncanonical Jewish texts

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The Christian Bible (2 of 2)
Hermeneutics: interpretations of Bible
Allegorical method
Eighteenth-century critical reading from historical view
Gospels (“good news”): stories of Jesus’ life
Composed in Greek or Aramaic
Synoptic gospels (“seen together”): Matthew, Mark, and Luke
Gospel of Thomas discovered in 1945

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The life and teachings of Jesus
What are the major events in the life of Jesus, as described in the gospels?
Jesus’ life cannot be reconstructed from the gospels.
New Testament stories are nevertheless important to Christians.
Scholars believe many sayings attributed to Jesus are authentic.

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Birth
Incarnation: God becomes flesh
A few years before the Common Era (CE)
Mary, mother of Jesus, and Joseph, father and carpenter
“Jesus” means “God saves”
Luke recounts witness of poor shepherds
Matthew recounts visit of Gentile (non-Jewish) Persian Magi

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Preparation
Visit to the Temple at Passover
Age 30: baptized by John the Baptist
After: 40 days in the desert; tempted by Satan

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Ministry (1 of 2)
Gathered first disciples
Taught desire for spiritual treasures instead of material wealth
Miracles
Water to wine
Healing the sick
Raising the dead
Preached radical ethics
Table fellowship
Fair treatment of marginalized people

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Ministry (2 of 2)
Welcomed women as disciples
Radically egalitarian vision
Teachings
Main teaching: love of God and others
God forgives those who repent.
Beatitudes: statements about supreme happiness
Jesus used short stories or parables to relate his teachings.

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Challenges to the authorities (1 of 2)
Jesus did not challenge Mosaic law.
He challenged its interpretation of law by the Pharisees and Sadducees.
He confronted priests about commercial interests in the Temple.

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Challenges to the authorities (2 of 2)
Gospel accounts appropriate Jesus as Messiah, “perfected,” and the Christ, “anointed one”
Transfiguration: Jesus showed three disciples his transcendental self.

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Crucifixion (1 of 2)
At the Last Supper, Jesus maintained the Jewish Passover tradition of Seder.
Jesus and three disciples went to the garden of Gethsemane, where he was captured.
Passion narratives describe Jesus’ suffering from Judas’s betrayal to death.

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Crucifixion (2 of 2)
He was taken before the high priest Joseph Caiaphas.
Roman governor Pontius Pilate sentenced him to death by crucifixion, a common death torture in the Roman Empire.

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Resurrection and Ascension
Resurrection: Jesus raised from the dead
Jesus appeared to disciples
Ascension: Jesus miraculously ascended bodily into the highest heaven
Acts of the Apostles: extends the Ascension into belief that Jesus will return bodily to earth in the future

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The early Church
How important was Paul’s role in the development of the early Christian Church?
Jesus’ followers persecuted
By 380 CE, Christianity became official religion of Roman Empire

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From persecution to empire (1 of 2)
Apostle: Christian missionary from early church.
50 days after Passover (Pentecost), 3,000 people converted to Christianity
Paul
Originally named Saul, a Pharisee tentmaker
Conversion after vision of Jesus on road to Damascus
New name Paul
Martyred in Rome
Tried to convince Jews that Jesus was fulfillment of Old Testament
Also attempted to convert Gentiles

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From persecution to empire (2 of 2)
Teachings of Paul
Salvation came through faith in Christ’s grace.
People forgiven by God are justified through their faith.
By 200 CE, Christianity spread through Mesopotamia.
312 CE: Roman Emperor Constantine had a vision of the cross.
Constantine was baptized as a Christian just before his death.
By the fifth century, Christianity was the faith of the majority of the vast former Roman Empire.

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Evolving organization and theology
Gnosticism: mystical perception of knowledge
Holy Trinity: three equal persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit
Church developed a number of creeds
325 CE: Council of Nicaea adopted Nicene Creed
Christology: attempt to define the nature of Jesus

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Early monasticism
By the fourth century, Christian monks and ascetic women (ammas) lived in desert caves.
By the fifth century, monastic life shifted from solitary, unguided practice to formal spiritual supervision.

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Church administration (1 of 2)
Why did divisions between the Eastern and Western Churches worsen in the Middle Ages?
Bishop of Rome eventually known as the pope
Major seats of Christianity
Rome
Constantinople
Alexandria
Antioch
Jerusalem

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Church administration (2 of 2)
The Roman pope claimed universal authority.
In the fifth century, Pope Leo I argued that all popes were apostolic successors of Peter.
Gregory I (“the Great”)
Founded monasteries and fed the poor
Sent missionaries to England
Worship of relics was a major feature of popular Christianity.
Those who disagreed with church authority could be excommunicated or removed from participation in the sacrament and, thereby, redemption.

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East–West division
1054: leaders of Eastern and Western churches excommunicated one another over:
Disagreement about Holy Spirit
Papal claim
Eucharistic bread
1204: Western Christian crusaders destroyed the Hagia Sophia
Eastern Church divided after Council of Chalcedon, 451 CE
Bishops who did not accept that Jesus was both divine and human were declared “out of communion” with both Eastern and Western Churches and excommunicated.

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Social chaos and the papacy
Papal authority began unifying Europe
Church and states began struggle for dominance
Inquisition: an ecclesiastical court from 1230 meant to suppress heresy

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Reform efforts
What were the major reforms of the Protestant and Roman Catholic Reformation?
Yearning for spiritual purity was pronounced in monasticism.
Twelfth century: new monastic orders formed—Cistercians, Gregorians, Carthusians
1225: Dominican Order formed to teach the faith and refute heresies
Franciscans followed St. Francis of Assisi by wandering without personal property.

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Medieval mysticism
Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179) founded two monasteries and had frequent visions of God.
St. Francis of Assisi (1182–1226) underwent radical spiritual transformation and “left the world.”
In fourteenth-century Italy, people gathered around saintly individuals.
Catherine of Siena sought to restore spiritual purity and religious discipline to the Church.

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The Protestant Reformation (1 of 4)
Church sold indulgences for remission of sins and decreased time in Purgatory (intermediate place of suffering while awaiting heaven)
Martin Luther (1483–1546)
Questioned the selling of indulgences
Argued for justification through faith
Believed the only sacraments were baptism (ritual to cleanse sin) and Eucharist (partaking of bread and wine)
1517: nailed theses about doctrine to university door
1521: excommunicated

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Protestant Reformation (2 of 4)
Ulrich Zwingli (1484–1531) rejected practices not in the Bible
Protestantism grew from these reforms
Movement was never monolithic but developed into several denominations (organized groups of congregations)
John Calvin (1509–1564)
Salvation by faith alone
Exclusive authority of Bible
The priesthood of all believers
Afterlife predestined
Movement became known as Calvinism

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Protestant Reformation (3 of 4)
Church of England
Henry VII declared English Church’s independence
1559: Elizabeth I finalized breach with Rome
Now called Anglicanism
Methodism
Originated with evangelist John Wesley (1703–1791)
Emphasis on holiness and methodological devotion
The reformation of the German Church became known as Lutheranism.

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Protestant Reformation (4 of 4)
Calvinism led to two major Reformed Churches:
Scottish Presbyterianism (led by presbyters)
Congregationalism (emphasis on independence of local church)
Anabaptists
Rejected infant baptism
Continued as Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish
Related to Quakers, who have no planned liturgy
Nineteenth- and twentieth-century denominations
Seventh-day Adventists believe the second coming is imminent.
Jehovah’s Witnesses criticize other churches for developing false doctrines.

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The Roman Catholic Reformation
“Counter-Reformation” in response to Protestant Reformation
Started with Council of Trent (1545–1563)
Good works and faith
transubstantiation: bread and wine transformed into the body and blood of Jesus
Emphasized its dogmas: authoritative truths
Jesuits—the “army of God”—missionized Asia

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The missionary enterprise
European countries spread influence through colonization
Conquered people by converting them to Christianity, “saving” them from “pagan” practices

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Liberal trends
Eighteenth-century Enlightenment in Europe exalted human reason and rejected biblical miracles
Led to invigoration of traditional faith
Led to increase in Protestant missionary activities
Unitarianism: Protestant movement that adopted simple theism

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The Second Vatican Council
Called by Pope John XXIII in 1962 to update and energize the Church
Allowed for liturgy in local languages
Greater emphasis on sacred music
Major focus on ecumenism among branches of Christianity
Opened dialogue with Judaism and Islam

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Orthodox world today (1 of 2)
What are the distinctive features of Orthodox spirituality?
15 self-governing Orthodox Churches worldwide
Majority of Orthodox Christians live in Russia
Patriarchate of Constantinople plays central role
Patriarchate of Alexandria includes all of Africa
Greek Orthodox Church dominates Greek religious life
Archbishop of the Church of Cyprus is also a political leader

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Orthodox world today (2 of 2)
synod: council of officials
Philokalia: writings of the saints of the Church
Central practice: “unceasing prayer”
“Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.”
Distinctive feature: veneration of icons, stylized paintings of Jesus, Mary, and saints

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Central beliefs in
contemporary Christianity
What are the central beliefs in contemporary Christianity?
Christian Church is vast and culturally diverse
Beliefs
Central belief in divine Sonship of Jesus
Jesus as the Savior of the world
Humanity inclined to sin because of original sin
Jesus associated with love
Jesus as model of sinlessness

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Sacred Practices
sacrament: “mystery” or sacred rites of Christianity
liturgy: ritual of public worship
Eucharist: consumption of bread and wine central part of regular worship
penance: reparation for the guilt of sin
baptism: first sacrament
confirmation: conscious and personal commitment to Christianity

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The liturgical calendar (1 of 2)
Christmas: celebration of Jesus’ birth
Epiphany: celebration of the visitation of the Magi
Advent: joyous month in anticipation of Christmas
Lent: 40-day period of repentance and fasting prior to Easter
Good Friday: commemoration of Jesus’ death
Easter: celebration of Jesus’ Resurrection

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The liturgical calendar (2 of 2)
Ascension: celebrated 40 days after Easter honoring Jesus’ bodily Ascension
Pentecost: 50 days after Jewish Passover, celebrates the descending of the Holy Spirit.
Transfiguration: August 6, celebrated by some; Jesus on the mountain in supernatural radiance
Assumption: August 15, celebrated by some as the day Mary ascended to heaven

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Contemplative prayer
Contemplative tradition re-emerging
Thomas Merton (1915–1948)
Trappist monk
Most influential contemplative

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Veneration of Mary, saints and angels
Mary most venerated of all saints
Perhaps related to goddess worship
Annunciation: the announcement of Jesus’ conception
Mary is the New Eve
Immaculate virgin
Appears to believers across the world
Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches emphasize prayer to saints and angels

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Contemporary trends (1 of 2)
How do evangelicalism and Spirit-oriented movements differ?
Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew, Archbishop of Constantinople, is called the “Green Patriarch” because of environmentalism.
Orthodox Coptic monasteries began to flourish in twentieth century.

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Contemporary trends (2 of 2)
2013: Pope Francis of Argentine elected
Nonjudgmental on homosexuality and divorce
Return to mission of protection of the weak
Decline in membership in Protestantism
Growth of “megachurches”
2014: Church of England approved ordination of women

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Evangelicalism
Emphasis on “born-again” experience
Important evangelists
John Wesley (1703–1791)
George Whitefield (1714–1770)
Jonathan Edwards (1703–1758), “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (1741)
fundamentalism: return to uncompromising tenets of Biblical inerrancy
Anticipate the imminent return of Jesus and rapture (transport to heaven) of believers

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Spirit-oriented movements
Charismatic experience of the Holy Spirit
No typical pattern of worship
Pentecostalism: emphasizes gifts of the Spirit like speaking in tongues and being “slain in the Spirit”
Brought women to forefront
Most rapidly growing religious movement in the world

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The great reversal
65 percent of worldwide Christians are non-Western
48 percent of Africa is Christian
Latin America: Jesus viewed as liberator of oppressed people
Missions now being sent to the West

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Christian faith and justice
Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–1968): great civil rights leader
Movement now called liberation theology
Gustavo Gutierrez coined phrase “theology of liberation”
Bakole Wa Ilinga, Archbishop of Kananga, warns against riches and power

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Feminist Christianity
Attempt to sort cultural and historical from theological concerns
Attempt to recover female role models from Bible
Attempt to recover nonpatriarchal models of God
Women have won ordination in some Christian denominations

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Creation-centered Christianity
“Dominion”: the duty to care for the earth
Emphasis on the miracle of earth’s creation
Many leaders urging people to limit environmental destruction

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Ecumenical movement
Contemporary attempt to unite all churches around points of agreement
World Council of Churches
Founded in 1948
Cooperation of all denominations regardless of doctrinal disagreements

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