Christian see below book: Editor Dr Tim Dowley Consulting Editors John H. Y. Briggs

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introduction to the history of christianity second edition tim dowley fortress press minneapolis


Dr Tim Dowley

Consulting Editors

John H. Y. Briggs

Director of the Centre for Baptist History and Heritage and Senior Research Fellow in Church History,
Oxford University, formerly Pro Vice-Chancellor, University of Birmingham, England

Dr Robert D. Linder

University Distinguished Professor of History,
Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA

The late David F. Wright

Formerly Professor in Patristic and Reformed Christianity, University of Edinburgh, Scotland

introduction to the history of christianity second edition tim dowley fortress press minneapolis


Second Edition

Fortress Press Edition © 2013

Copyright © 2013 Lion Hudson plc/Tim Dowley Associates

All rights reserved.

Worldwide co-edition organized and produced by Lion Hudson plc,

Wilkinson House, Oxford OX2 8HL, England

This book is published in cooperation with Lion Hudson Publishing, Oxford, England. All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in critical articles or reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced in any manner without prior written permission from the publisher. Visit or write to Permissions, Augsburg Fortress, Box 1209, Minneapolis, MN 55440.

Original edition published as A Lion Handbook: The History of Christianity, 1977

Scripture quotations marked NIV are from the Holy Bible, New International Version, copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan and Hodder & Stoughton Limited. All rights reserved. The ‘NIV’ and ‘New International Version’ trademarks are registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office by International Bible Society. Use of either trademark requires the permission of International Bible Society. UK trademark number 1448790.

Scripture quotations marked NRSV are from the New Revised Standard Version published by HarperCollins Publishers, copyright © 1989 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA, and are used by permission. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked KJV are from the King James Version.

Cover image: Abraham with the angels (mosaic), Byzantine School, (6th century) / San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy / The Bridgeman Art Library; The Holy Family (Barcelona, Spain) ©iStockphoto / stan tiberiu loredan; Christ Pantocrator, 1607 (oil on panel), Bulgarian School, (17th century) / National Art Gallery, Sofia, Bulgaria / Giraudon / The Bridgeman Art Library

Cover design: Laurie Ingram

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available

ISBN 978-0-8006-9969-7




List of maps

List of Time Charts

List of illustrations/photographs


Preface to the Revised Edition

PART 1: Beginnings AD 1–325

1. Jesus: His life, ministry, death and its consequences

The Thought-world of Early Christianity

2. The Church Begins: From Jerusalem to Rome



3. Establishing Christianity: Challenges to the New Faith

The Religions of the Romans




4. Spreading the Good News: How and why Christianity Exapnded

5. Archaeology and Earliest Christianity: What archaeologists can – and cannot – illuminate

6. What the First Christians Believed

The Gnostics

Eusebius: ‘Father of Church History’

Clement of Rome

Justin Martyr: Christian apologist

Ignatius of Antioch



Cyprian of Carthage

The Manichaeans

7. How the First Christians Worshipped

How the New Testament Came Down to Us

The Early Church Recognizes the New Testament

Study questions

PART 2: Acceptance and Conquest: AD 325-600

8. Constantine and the Christian Empire: Christianity recognized

Ambrose of Milan

9. Councils and Creeds: Defining and defending the faith


Basil the Great


Cyril of Alexandria

Leo the Great

10. Buildings and Belief: Early church structures

11. Worship and the Christian Year: The making of the Christian Calendar

12. Clergy, Bishops, and Pope: The church builds an organisation

13. The Church in North Africa: The making of a distinctive tradition

Augustine of Hippo

14. The Fall of the Roman Empire: How and why it came to an end



15. Ascetics and Monks: The rise of Christian monasticism


Patrick: Missionary to the Irish

Columba: Celtic missionary

Study questions

PART 3: A Christian Society

16. The West in Crisis

Gregory the Great


17. The Eastern Church

John Chrysostom: master preacher

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite

The Paulicians and the Bogomils

18. Flowering: the Western Church: Reform and resurgence

Thomas Becket

Pope Innocent III

Bernard of Clairvaux

Francis of Assisi

The Waldensians

The Sacraments in Medieval Europe


Peter Abelard

Thomas Aquinas

Popular Religion

19. Monasticism in the West

Interpreting the Bible in the Middle Ages

20. The Orthodox Church in Eastern Europe and Russia

The Slavic Bible

21. An Age of Unrest: The Western Church in the Late Middle Ages

Jan Hus


John Wyclif

William of Ockham

Study Questions

PART 4: Reform and Renewal: 1500-1650

22. Seeds of Renewal: The origins of the Reformation

23: Reformation

Martin Luther

John Calvin

The Faith of the Protestants

Philipp Melanchthon

Huldrych Zwingli

Theodore Beza

Martin Bucer

Thomas Cranmer

Puritans and Separatists

Post-Reformation Church Architecture

The Unitarians

24. A Flood of Bibles: Scripture in the vernacular

William Tyndale and the English Bible

25. The Radical Reformation: the Anabaptists

The First English Baptists

John Bunyan

26. The Catholic Reformation

Gasparo Contarini

Ignatius of Loyola

The Jesuits

Teresa of Avila

John of the Cross

George Fox and the Quakers

27. Art and the Spirit: Christianity and its cultural expression

Study questions

PART 5: Reason, Revival, and Revolution 1650-1789

28. Expansion Worldwide: European missions

The First English Missions

29. Awakening: The Evangelical Revival and the Great Awakening

Jonathan Edwards

George Whitefield

Philipp Spener

Nikolaus von Zinzendorf

John and Charles Wesley

Hymns and Church Music

Christianity and the Rise of Modern Science

30. Reason and Unreason: The rise of rationalism

Blaise Pascal

The Reasonableness of Christianity

31. The Russian Church: 1500–1900

Study questions

PART 6: Cities and Empires 1789-1914

32. Europe in Revolt: Church and State in teh Nineteenth Century

Pope Pius IX

33. The First Industrial Nation: The Industrial Revolution and the British Churches

William Wilberforce

The Oxford Movement

The Brethren

C. H. Spurgeon: ‘Prince of Preachers’

John Henry Newman

The Evangelicals

34. A Crusade Among Equals: REvivalism, Abolition, and Evangelism in the USA

D. L. Moody: Mass evangelist

Hymns and Church Music after 1800

35. A World Come of Age: Science and Philosophy challenge Christianity

Friedrich Schleiermacher

36. Outposts of Empire: The nineteenth-century missionary explosion

William Carey

The Bible Societies

David Livingstone

Hudson Taylor

Samuel Ajayi Crowther

Study questions

PART 7: A Century of Conflict 1914-2001

37. An Age of Ideology: nationalism, Communism, and individualism take on Christianity

Karl Barth

The Christian Church and the Jews

Billy Graham

Martin Luther King

Christians, War, and Peace

38. An Age of Anxiety: Theological thinking in troubled era

Albert Schweitzer

Dietrich Bonhoeffer

39. Pentecostalism and the Charismatic Movement

African Independent Churches

40. The Arts in the Christian West

C. S. Lewis

41. Organizing for Unity

Pope John XXIII

42. An Age of Liberation

Hélder Câmara

Study questions

Part 8: Epilogue: A New Millennium

43. Present and Future: The church in an ever-changing world

Further Resources on the History of Christianity



Dr John S. Andrews, formerly Sub-Librarian, University of Lancaster, England. Hymns and Church Music; Hymns and Church Music after 1800.

The late Canon James Atkinson, formerly Director of the Centre for Reformation Studies, University of Sheffield, England. Reformation; Thomas Cranmer.

Dr David W. Bebbington, Professor of History, University of Stirling, Scotland. C. H. Spurgeon; William Carey; William Wilberforce.

The late Dr Paul M. Bechtel, formerly Professor Emeritus of English, Wheaton College, Illinois, USA. Blaise Pascal.

Dr Janette Bohi, formerly Professor of History, University of Wisconsin, Whitewater, Wisconsin, USA. A Crusade among Equals.

John H. Y. Briggs, Director of the Centre for Baptist History and Heritage and Senior Research Fellow in Church History, Oxford University, formerly Pro Vice-Chancellor, University of Birmingham, England. The First English Baptists; The First Industrial Nation;
Present and Future.

Dr Colin Brown, Senior Professor of Systematic Theology, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California, USA. Anselm; Reason and Unreason; A World Come of Age; Friedrich Schleiermacher.

Revd Colin O. Buchanan, formerly Bishop of Woolwich, England. The Sacraments in Medieval Europe; Organizing for Unity.

Revd Dr Richard A. Burridge, Dean, Kings College, London. Jesus

Dr Robert G. Clouse, Senior Research Scholar in Liberal Arts and Professor Emeritus of History, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana, USA. Columba; Patrick; Boethius; Flowering: the Western Church;
Francis of Assisi; Thomas Aquinas; Savonarola; John of the Cross.

The late Revd Dr Leonard W. Cowie, formerly Senior Lecturer in History, Whitelands College, London. The First English Missions.

Dr James A. DeJong, President and Professor of Historical Theology, Emeritus, Calvin Theological Seminary, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. Expansion Worldwide.

Dr Walter Delius, formerly Professor of Church History, Theological Faculty, Berlin, Germany. Alcuin.

Dr Bruce A. Demarest, formerly Professor of Theology and Spiritual Formation, Denver Seminary, Denver, Colorado, USA. Jerome; Interpreting the Bible in the Middle Ages.

Dr Wayne A. Detzler, Academic Dean and Professor of Biblical Studies and Missions, Southern Evangelical Seminary, North Carolina, USA. Europe in Revolt; Pope Pius IX;
The Bible Societies.

Revd Dr John P. Donnelly, Professor Emeritus of History, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Gasparo Contarini; The Jesuits; Pope John XXIII.

Dr Tim Dowley, London. John Wyclif, John Bunyan, Karl Barth.

Dr James D. G. Dunn, Emeritus Lightfoot Professor of Divinity, University of Durham, England. Pentecostalism and the Charismatic Movement.

The late H. L. Ellison, Bible teacher and lecturer, England. The Christian Church and the Jews.

Dr Everett Ferguson, Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Abilene Christian University, Texas, USA. Irenaeus; Origen; Tertullian;
Athanasius; John Chrysostom.

The late Dr Ronald C. Finucane, Distinguished Professor of History, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA. Monasticism in the West; The Waldensians; An Age of Unrest.

Dr Harlie Kay Gallatin, Senior Professor Emeritus of History, Southwest Baptist University, Bolivar, Missouri, USA. The Eastern Church.

Dr W. Ward Gasque, President of Pacific Association for Biblical Studies, Seattle, USA. The Church Begins; Establishing Christianity

Daniel Guy, MA, Marlborough, England: Europe in Revolt

The late Dr Colin Hemer, formerly Research Fellow, Tyndale House, Cambridge, England. Archaeological and Earliest Christianity;
Justin Martyr.

The late Canon Michael M. Hennell, Manchester Cathedral, Manchester, England. The Evangelicals; The Oxford Movement; John Henry Newman.

Walter G. Hooper, Trustee and Literary Advisor to the Estate of C.S. Lewis.
C.S. Lewis.

Dr Thomas Howard, Emeritus Professor of English, St John’s Seminary, Brighton, Massachusetts, USA. The Arts in the Christian West.

Dr Larry W. Hurtado, Emeritus Professor of New Testament Language, Literature and Theology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland. How the New Testament Came Down to Us.

Dr F. W. Kantzenbach, formerly Professor of History of the Church and Christian Doctrine, University of Saarland, Germany. Albert Schweitzer.

Dr Alan Kreider, formerly Professor of Church History and Mission, Associated Mennonite Biblical Seminary, Elkhart, Indiana, USA. Christians, War, and Peace; The Radical Reformation.

A. N. S. Lane, Professor of Historical Theology, London Bible College, England. A Flood of Bibles; William Tyndale and the English Bible.

Dr Robert D. Linder, University Distinguished Professor of History, Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA. Peter Abelard; The Catholic Reformation.

The late Dr Andreas Lindt, formerly Professor of Modern Church History, University of Berne, Switzerland. John Calvin.

The late Dr H. Dermot McDonald, formerly Vice-Principal and Senior Lecturer, History of Doctrine and Philosophy of Religion, London School of Theology. Marcion; Basil the Great; Nestorius; Cyril of Alexandria; William of Ockham.

Dr Philip M. J. McNair, formerly Serena Professor of Italian, University of Birmingham, England. Seeds of Renewal.

Dr Caroline T. Marshall, formerly Professor of History, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA. Bernard of Clairvaux; Thomas Becket; Popular Religion; Jan Hus;
Teresa of Avila.

Dr Ralph P. Martin, formerly Distinguished Scholar in Residence at Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, USA. How the first Christians Worshipped.

Dr James R. Moore, Professor of the History of Science, The Open University, Milton Keynes, England. Christianity and the Rise of Modern Science; The Reasonableness of Christianity.

Dr James I. Packer, Board of Governors’ Professor of Theology, Regent College, Vancouver, Canada. The Faith of the Protestants; Ignatius of Loyola.

Dr C. René Padilla, President, Micah Network; Executive Director, Ediciones Kairos, Buenos Aires, Argentina. An Age of Liberation, Hélder Câmara.

Dr Pheme Perkins, Professor, Boston College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The Thought-world of Early Christianity

Dr Richard Pierard, formerly Scholar-in-Residence and Stephen Philips Professor of History, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts, USA. An Age of Ideology; Billy Graham.

Arthur O. Roberts, Professor-at-large, George Fox University, Newberg, Oregon, USA. George Fox and the Quakers.

Revd Dr Wesley A. Roberts, Pastor, Peoples Baptist Church of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Martin Luther King, Jr.

The late Dr Henderik ‘Hans’ R. Rookmaaker, first Professor of Art History, Free University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Art and the Spirit.

The late Dr Harry Rosenberg, formerly Professor of History, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. The West in Crisis; Gregory the Great; Pope Innocent III.

Dr Harold Rowdon, formerly Lecturer

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