Blog Pick one Disease or Disorder from this week’s reading assignments. Write a blog as if you were a patient suffering from this condition. Be creative. A

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Pick one Disease or Disorder from this week’s reading assignments. Write a blog as if you were a patient suffering from this condition. Be creative. Answer the following questions in paragraph form?
  1. What are the worst symptoms or hardest to deal with symptoms of the disease?
  2. What treatments are you currently on?
  3. Are you experiencing any side effects from the treatments or medications?
  4. What questions do you have for your doctor?
  5. What advice would you offer a patient that is newly diagnosed with this condition?
  6. Finally, add how this condition makes you feel from an emotional standpoint.  How are you coping with it?
Your blog should be at least 250 words.

Chapter 15

Nervous System Diseases and Disorders

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Anatomy and Physiology

Nervous system

Brain, spinal cord, and nerves

Central nervous system (C N S)

Brain

Spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system (P N S)

Autonomic nervous system

Cranial and spinal nerves

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Common Signs and Symptoms (1 of 3)

Headache

Nausea and vomiting

Weakness

Mood swings

Fever

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Common Signs and Symptoms (2 of 3)

Symptoms specific to C N S:

Stiffness in neck, back, or extremities

Inability to move any part of body

Seizures or convulsions

Paralysis

Visual difficulties

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Common Signs and Symptoms (3 of 3)

Symptoms specific to C N S:

Inability to speak

Paralysis

Extreme or prolonged drowsiness

Stupor, unconsciousnes

Amnesia or extreme forgetfulness

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Diagnostic Tests

Cerebrospinal fluid

Measurement of intracranial pressure

X-rays of skull and vertebral column

Myelogram

Angiogram

Electroencephalography (E E G)

C T and M R I

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (1 of 13)

Encephalitis

Inflammation of brain tissue caused by bacteria and viruses

Symptoms:

Headache

Elevated temperature

Stiff neck and back

Lethargy

Mental confusion

Coma

Treatment:

Treatment is supportive

Antiviral medication may be effective

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (2 of 13)

Meningitis

Inflammation of meninges or coverings of brain and spinal cord

Causes:

Bacteria

Virus

Fungi

Toxins

E.g., lead, arsenic

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (3 of 13)

Meningitis

Symptoms:

High fever

Severe headaches

Photophobia

Stiffness and resistance in neck (nuchal rigidity)

Drowsiness, stupor, seizures

Coma

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (4 of 13)

Meningitis

Diagnosis

Lumbar puncture to find causative agent

Treatment

Antibiotics for bacterial infection

Antipyretics

Anticonvulsants

Quiet, dark environment

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (5 of 13)

Poliomyelitis

Viral infection affecting brain and spinal cord

Cause:

Virus spread by oropharyngeal secretions and infected feces

Almost eliminated by vaccine in United States

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (6 of 13)

Poliomyelitis

Symptoms:

Muscle weakness

Neck stiffness

Nausea and vomiting

Muscles atrophy and become paralyzed

Diagnosis

Virus culture from throat, feces, and/or spinal fluid

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (7 of 13)

Poliomyelitis

Supportive treatment:

Analgesics

Bedrest during acute phase

Long-term physical therapy and braces may be needed

If respiratory system involved, mechanical ventilation may be needed

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (8 of 13)

Tetanus

Highly fatal infection of nerve tissue

Cause

Bacteria Clostridium tetani

First symptom:

Jaw stiffness

Commonly called lockjaw

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (9 of 13)

Rabies

An often fatal encephalomyelitis

Caused by virus

Primarily affects animals

E.g., dogs, cats, raccoons, squirrels

Transmitted to humans through bite of infected animal

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (10 of 13)

Rabies

Symptoms:

Fever

Pain

Paralysis

Convulsions

Rage

Spasms and paralysis of muscles for swallowing

Throat spasms leading to hydrophobia

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (11 of 13)

Rabies

Symptoms:

Inability to swallow

Drooling of frothy saliva

Treatment:

Immediate washing of area with soap and water

Anti-rabies injections

No cure

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (12 of 13)

Shingles

Viral disease caused by herpes zoster (chicken pox virus)

Symptoms

Itchy, painful, red rash and small vesicles on sensory nerve paths

Symptoms last 10 days to several weeks

Diagnosis

Made based on the appearance of lesions

Viral culture test

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Shingles

Photo courtesy Robert A. Silverman, MD, Pediatric Dermatology, Georgetown University

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Infectious Diseases (13 of 13)

Shingles

Treatment:

There is no cure

Treatment is symptomatic

Antivirals

Analgesics

Antipyretics

Antipruritics

Vaccine recommended by C D C for adults over age 60

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Vascular Disorders (1 of 6)

Cerebrovascular accident (C V A)

Also known as stroke

Is due to a poor blood supply to the brain

Causes

Cerebral thrombus

Cerebral embolism

Cerebral hemorrhage

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Vascular Disorders (2 of 6)

C V A

Symptoms: numerous symptoms depending on the area of the brain affected and the severity of the C V A

Sudden loss of consciousness

Confusion

Poor coordination

Dysphasia

Dysphagia

Hemiparesis

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Vascular Disorders (3 of 6)

C V A

Diagnosis

Physical exam, E E G, C T scan, and M R I

Treatment:

Anticoagulant

Hypertensive medications

Rehabilitation program

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Vascular Disorders (4 of 6)

C V A

Risk factors:

Smoking

High-fat diet

Obesity

Lack of exercise

Surgical prevention treatment:

Carotid endarterectomy

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Vascular Disorders (5 of 6)

Transient ischemic attacks (T I A s)

Also known as mini-strokes

Due to insufficient blood supply to brain

Symptoms:

Weakness of arm and/or leg

Dizziness

Slurred speech

Mild loss of consciousness

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Vascular Disorders (6 of 6)

T I A s

Symptoms last few minutes to 1 hour

Diagnosis by angiogram

Treatment:

Surgery to improve blood flow

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (1 of 13)

Degenerative disk disease

Headaches

Epilepsy

Bell’s palsy

Parkinson’s disease

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (2 of 13)

Degenerative disk disease

Degeneration or wearing away of intervertebral disk

Allows vertebrae to bump or rub against each other

Symptoms:

Difficulty walking

Radiating pain in back and in one or both legs

Diagnosis by X-ray, myelogram, C T scan, and M R I

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (3 of 13)

Degenerative disk disease

Treatment:

Rest back and legs

Back brace

Analgesics

Anti-inflammatories

Exercise to ease pain

Surgery

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (4 of 13)

Headaches

One of the most common disorders in humans

Usually a symptom of another disease rather than a disorder in and of itself

Disorders that typically have headaches as a symptom include:

Sinusitis Meningitis
Encephalitis Hypertension
Anemia Constipation
Premenstrual tension Tumors

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (5 of 13)

Headaches

Caused by two mechanisms:

Tension on facial, neck, and scalp muscles

Vascular changes in arterial size of vessels inside head

Contributing factors:

Stress

Toxic fumes

Noise

Lack of sleep

Alcohol consumption

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (6 of 13)

Headaches

Headaches may be acute or chronic

Pain may be mild to unbearable and incapacitating

Pain may be constant, pressure, throbbing, stabbing, or intermittent

Types:

Tension

Cluster

Following lumbar puncture

Migraine

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (7 of 13)

Headaches

Diagnosis:

History and physical, X-ray, E E G, M R I, and C T

Treatment:

Lifestyle changes – improved diet, sleep, exercise

Analgesics

Bedrest

Muscle massage

Muscle relaxants

Warm baths

Biofeedback

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (8 of 13)

Epilepsy

Chronic disease of brain

Intermittent episodes of abnormal electrical activity in brain

Symptoms:

Seizure

Convulsions

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (9 of 13)

Epilepsy

Common types of seizures

Petit mal

Grand mal

Status epilepticus

Diagnosis by E E G, C T scan, cerebral angiogram, and blood tests

Treatment:

Anticonvulsive medications

Close monitoring and adjusting of medication

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (10 of 13)

Bell’s palsy

Affects facial nerve (7th cranial) leading to unilateral (one-sided) paralysis

Affects individuals 20 to 60 years of age

Symptoms:

Drooping weakness of eye and mouth

Inability to close the affected eye

Drooling of saliva

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (11 of 13)

Bell’s palsy

Symptoms:

Unable to whistle or smile

Distorted facial appearance

Diagnosis by history and symptoms

Treatment:

Analgesics

Anti-inflammatories

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (12 of 13)

Parkinson’s disease

Slow, progressive brain degeneration

Cause is unknown, but may be related to a decrease of brain neurotransmitter – dopamine

Symptoms:

Rigidity and immobility of hand

Very slow speech pattern

Pill-rolling motion of fingers

Expressionless facial appearance

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Functional Disorders (13 of 13)

Parkinson’s disease

Symptoms:

Abnormal bent-forward posture

Short, fast-running steps with shuffling appearance

Symptomatic treatment:

Dopamine replacement

Physical and psychological therapy

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Dementias (1 of 10)

Loss of mental ability due to loss of neurons or brain cells

Types of dementia

Senile (old age)

Alzheimer’s disease – the most common type of senile dementia

Senile and Alzheimer’s disease are often used synonymously, but they are not the same.

Vascular

Head trauma

Substance induced

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Dementias (2 of 10)

Alzheimer’s disease

A form of senile dementia

Usually affects individuals age 60 and older

Early symptoms:

Short-term memory loss

Inability to concentrate

Slight changes in personality

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Dementias (3 of 10)

Alzheimer’s disease

Symptoms of disease progression:

Diminished communication skills

Meaningless words

Inability to form sentences

Increased forgetfulness

Irritability and agitation

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Dementias (4 of 10)

Alzheimer’s disease

Diagnosis

Positive only by autopsy

Initially, diagnosis may be made by ruling out other brain diseases

Treatment

Supportive, no known cure

Focused on safety, maintaining nutrition, hydration, personal hygiene

Emotional support for family and caregivers

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Dementias (5 of 10)

Vascular dementia

Atrophy and death of brain cells due to decreased blood flow

Atherosclerotic plaque can cause decreased blood flow

Common with aging

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Dementias (6 of 10)

Vascular dementia

Symptoms:

Changes in memory, personality, and judgment

Irritability

Depression

Sleeplessness

Lack of personal hygiene

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Dementias (7 of 10)

Vascular dementia

Diagnosis:

History and physical, blood flow testing

Treatment:

Increasing blood flow to brain

Carotid endarterectomy

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Dementias (8 of 10)

Head trauma dementia

Death of brain cells due to head trauma

Symptoms:

Decrease in mental intellect and cognitive function

Loss of ability to reason, remember, or show appropriate emotions

Changes in personality

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Dementias (9 of 10)

Head trauma dementia

Diagnosis:

History, cranial X-rays, C T scan, and M R I

Treatment:

Correct damage, if possible

Therapy and rehabilitation

Prevention:

Is often easy to prevent with proper use of protective equipment

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Dementias (10 of 10)

Substance-induced dementia

Brain cell death from drug toxicity and toxins

Toxic substances include:

Alcohol Cocaine
Heroine Lead
Mercury Paint fumes and thinner
Insecticides

Symptoms:

Mental impairment

Decreased cognitive ability

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Sleep Disorders (1 of 4)

Insomnia

The most common form of sleep disorder

Inability to fall or stay asleep

Cause:

Stress, pain, fear, depression, caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, and bronchodilators

Treatment:

Identifying and removing cause

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Sleep Disorders (2 of 4)

Sleep apnea

Characterized by periods of breathlessness

Cause:

More common in men

Obesity

Hypertension

Airway obstruction

Alcohol ingestion

Cigarette smoking

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Sleep Disorders (3 of 4)

Sleep apnea

Symptoms:

Daytime sleepiness

Extreme snoring

Changes in personality

Depression

Impotence

Diagnosis:

Monitoring affected individual during sleep for apnea and low blood oxygen levels

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Sleep Disorders (4 of 4)

Sleep apnea

Treatment:

Based on cause

Weight loss

Surgery to correct nasal obstruction

Oxygen during sleep

Medications to stimulate breathing

Prevention:

Most cases can be prevented by maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding alcohol, not smoking, and avoiding environmental smoke

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Tumors (1 of 2)

Brain tumor

Classified as primary and secondary

Primary tumors are called brain tumors

Secondary tumors are named after the organ of origin

Cause:

Unknown

Symptoms:

Headache

Vomiting

Seizures

Changes in mood and personality

Visual disturbance

Loss of memory

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Tumors (2 of 2)

Diagnosis:

Clinical symptoms

X-ray

C T scan

M R I

Biopsy

Treatment:

Surgery

Radiation

Chemotherapy

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Trauma (1 of 13)

Concussions and contusions

Concussion less serious than contusion

Contusion is a physical bruising of the brain tissue

Cause

Blow to head by object, fall, or other trauma

E.g., automobile accident

Symptoms:

Disruption of normal electrical activity in brain – unconsciousness

Unconsciousness may last a few seconds to several hours

Headache

Blurred vision

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Trauma (2 of 13)

Concussions and contusions

Symptoms:

Irritability

Draw up knees and begin vomiting

Contusions can lead to:

Hematoma

Increased intracranial pressure (I C P)

Permanent brain damage

Coup and contrecoup contusions

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Coup and Contrecoup

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Trauma (3 of 13)

Concussions and contusions

Diagnosis:

History of injury, neurologic examination, cranial X-ray, C T scan, and M R I

Treatment:

Bedrest

Direct observation

Individual should be checked every 2 to 4 hours

Monitoring of changes in consciousness, eye pupil size, mood, and behavior

Analgesics, stimulants, and sedatives should not be given

Medications may mask symptoms and make assessment difficult

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Trauma (4 of 13)

Skull fracture

A break in a cranial (skull bone)

Greatest danger:

Brain tissue damage from bony fragments

Potential of cutting brain, severing vessels, causing hematoma

Brain damage may be temporary or permanent

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Trauma (5 of 13)

Skull fracture

Symptoms:

Variety of symptoms depending on location of fracture

Fracture near base of skull may cause impaired breathing

Hemiparesis

Seizures

Infection

Treatment:

Dependent on type and position of fracture

Craniotomy may be necessary to relieve I C P

Protective headgear may be necessary until fracture healed

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Trauma (6 of 13)

Epidural and subdural hematomas

Epidural hematoma is a collection of blood between the bony skull and dura mater (outer meninges)

Subdural hematoma is a collection of blood between the dura mater (outer layer) and the arachnoid (middle layer)

Subdural hematoma occurs twice as often as epidural

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Trauma (7 of 13)

Epidural hematoma

Cause:

Usually the result of a fight or accident

Blood vessels rupture and hemorrhage or seep blood usually rapidly over a period of hours

Symptoms:

Usually occur within a few hours

Headache

Dilated pupils

Nausea

Vomiting

Neighbors/Tannehil-Jones, Human Diseases, 5th Edition. © 2019 Cengage. All Rights Re

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