ASSIGNMENT Reflect on what you learned in Module 02: Individual Differences (Personality and Values). In no less than 750 words, discuss values congruence

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Reflect on what you learned in Module 02: Individual Differences (Personality and Values). In no less than 750 words, discuss values congruence in the context of an employee’s personal values versus the organization’s values. Explain how/why values congruence is relevant with respect to organizational versus professional values (i.e., values of a professional occupation, such as physician, accountant, pharmacist).

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INDIVIDUAL
BEHAVIOR,
PERSONALITY, AND
VALUES

MHR 3020: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

Ruben Delgado, Ph.D., SPHR, SHRM-SCP, CCP, CPLP, CLRP

1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of this lecture/discussion, you will
be able to:
• Define behavior, personality, and values.
• List and describe the four elements of the MARS
Model.

• Identify and describe 5 types of individual behavior.
• Describe the Schwartz Values Model.
• Describe how personality and values affect
individual behavior.

MARS MODEL OF INDIVIDUAL
BEHAVIOR

Individual
behavior and
results (BAR)

Individual
behavior and
results (BAR)

Situational
factors

Situational
factors

Personality

Values

Self-concept

Perceptions

Emotions &
attitudes

Stress

Personality

Values

Self-concept

Perceptions

Emotions &
attitudes

Stress
Role
perceptions

Role
perceptions

MotivationMotivation

AbilityAbility

TYPES OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR

Task Performance

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs)

Counterproductive Work Behaviors

Joining and Staying in Organizations

Maintaining Work Attendance

PERSONALITY IN ORGANIZATIONS

Personality – relatively enduring patterns of
thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that
characterize a person, along with the
psychological processes behind those
characteristics.

• external traits
• internal states

NATURE vs NURTURE OF
PERSONALITY

Influenced by nature
• Heredity explains about 50 percent of behavioral
tendencies

Influenced by nurture
• Socialization, learning

Personality stabilizes in young adulthood
• Self-concept gets clearer, more stable with age
• Executive function regulates behavior
• But some traits change throughout life

FIVE-FACTOR PERSONALITY MODEL
(CANOE)

conscientiousness
agreeableness

neuroticism
open to experience

extraversion

FIVE-FACTOR PERSONALITY AND
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR

JUNGIAN PERSONALITY THEORY

Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung
Model includes preferences for perceiving the
environment and obtaining and processing information
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

• Measures Jungian types
• Most widely used personality test in business
• Good for self-awareness and other awareness
• Poor predictor of performance, leadership, team
development

JUNGIAN & MYERS-BRIGGS TYPES

VALUES IN THE WORKPLACE

Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences
• Define right and wrong, good and bad: what we
“ought” to do

• Direct our motivation, potentially decisions and
behavior

Value system: hierarchy of values
Compared with personality, values are:

• Evaluative (not descriptive)
• May conflict strongly with each other
• Affected more by nurture than nature

SCHWARTZ’S VALUES MODEL

PERSONAL VALUES AND BEHAVIOR

How personal values influence decisions and behavior:
1. Affect the relative attractiveness of choices

2. Frame perceptions

3. Act consistently with self-concept and public image

Why personal values fail to influence decisions and behavior:
• Situation—interferes with values-consistent behavior

• Awareness (salience)—relevance of values isn’t obvious
• Values are abstract

• Routine behavior makes us less mindful of values consistency

VALUES CONGRUENCE

Similarity of a person’s values hierarchy to
another source
Importance of values congruence

• Team values congruence—higher team
cohesion and performance

• Person–organization values congruence—
higher job satisfaction, loyalty, and
organizational citizenship, lower stress and
turnover

VALUES ACROSS CULTURES

collectivism/individualism
power distance

uncertainty avoidance
achievement-nurturing

THE END…

• Comments.

• Questions.

• Concerns.

  • Slide 1
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • MARS MODEL OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR
  • TYPES OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR
  • PERSONALITY IN ORGANIZATIONS
  • NATURE vs NURTURE OF PERSONALITY
  • FIVE-FACTOR PERSONALITY MODEL (CANOE)
  • FIVE-FACTOR PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR
  • JUNGIAN PERSONALITY THEORY
  • JUNGIAN & MYERS-BRIGGS TYPES
  • VALUES IN THE WORKPLACE
  • SCHWARTZ’S VALUES MODEL
  • PERSONAL VALUES AND BEHAVIOR
  • VALUES CONGRUENCE
  • VALUES ACROSS CULTURES
  • THE END…

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